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UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tracking vitamin D3 in D. pulex.(A) A live D. pulex was placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue, with no vitamin D3 (“control”) and images were captured 30 min post exposure (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). Note the presence of the dye in the gut tract (red stain). (B). Live D. pulex were placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue linked vitamin D3, rinsed thoroughly, and images were captured 120 min post exposure (10x). Image was compiled from a 90-min time lapse to capture sequestration of vitamin D3 (red) into the tissues of the D. pulex from the intestine. The high intensity red “dots” in the image are concentrated dye on the outside of the carapace that was not removed during the rinsing stages. The yellow circle indicates a region where D3 sequestration was detected.
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pone.0131847.g004: Tracking vitamin D3 in D. pulex.(A) A live D. pulex was placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue, with no vitamin D3 (“control”) and images were captured 30 min post exposure (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). Note the presence of the dye in the gut tract (red stain). (B). Live D. pulex were placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue linked vitamin D3, rinsed thoroughly, and images were captured 120 min post exposure (10x). Image was compiled from a 90-min time lapse to capture sequestration of vitamin D3 (red) into the tissues of the D. pulex from the intestine. The high intensity red “dots” in the image are concentrated dye on the outside of the carapace that was not removed during the rinsing stages. The yellow circle indicates a region where D3 sequestration was detected.

Mentions: All of the fluorescent dye in the control remains in the gut tract, and is ultimately passed out of the Daphnia, with no indications of uptake or sequestration of the dye into the surrounding tissues (Fig 4A).


UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Tracking vitamin D3 in D. pulex.(A) A live D. pulex was placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue, with no vitamin D3 (“control”) and images were captured 30 min post exposure (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). Note the presence of the dye in the gut tract (red stain). (B). Live D. pulex were placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue linked vitamin D3, rinsed thoroughly, and images were captured 120 min post exposure (10x). Image was compiled from a 90-min time lapse to capture sequestration of vitamin D3 (red) into the tissues of the D. pulex from the intestine. The high intensity red “dots” in the image are concentrated dye on the outside of the carapace that was not removed during the rinsing stages. The yellow circle indicates a region where D3 sequestration was detected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492615&req=5

pone.0131847.g004: Tracking vitamin D3 in D. pulex.(A) A live D. pulex was placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue, with no vitamin D3 (“control”) and images were captured 30 min post exposure (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). Note the presence of the dye in the gut tract (red stain). (B). Live D. pulex were placed in a 1:10 solution of ethylene blue linked vitamin D3, rinsed thoroughly, and images were captured 120 min post exposure (10x). Image was compiled from a 90-min time lapse to capture sequestration of vitamin D3 (red) into the tissues of the D. pulex from the intestine. The high intensity red “dots” in the image are concentrated dye on the outside of the carapace that was not removed during the rinsing stages. The yellow circle indicates a region where D3 sequestration was detected.
Mentions: All of the fluorescent dye in the control remains in the gut tract, and is ultimately passed out of the Daphnia, with no indications of uptake or sequestration of the dye into the surrounding tissues (Fig 4A).

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus