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UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

D. pulex survival with vitamin D3.D. pulex (N = 12) exposed to acute UV-A in the presence of vitamin D3. Blue line = 0 mg D3; Black line = 5 mg D3; Red line = 10 mg D3. No reproduction was observed in any individuals during the experimental period. Error = standard error of the mean across 3 trials.
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pone.0131847.g003: D. pulex survival with vitamin D3.D. pulex (N = 12) exposed to acute UV-A in the presence of vitamin D3. Blue line = 0 mg D3; Black line = 5 mg D3; Red line = 10 mg D3. No reproduction was observed in any individuals during the experimental period. Error = standard error of the mean across 3 trials.

Mentions: Acute UV-A-exposed D. pulex trials were conducted to determine survivorship of the D. pulex under the interaction of UV-A (0–54 kJ/m2/nm) and vitamin D3 (Fig 3). Again, intermediate concentrations of added vitamin D3 (5 mg treatment) showed the maximum effectiveness for nearly all UV-A doses (except 36 kJ/m2/nm when 10 mg D3 was greatest). This is consistent with our findings in the chronic UV-A exposures (highest average survival at 5 mg D3), and the lowest average survival for all doses of acute UV-A being the 0 mg vitamin D3 treatment. There was no reproduction in any of the treatments during the 5 d acute UV-A, although low reproduction levels were noted in the 8–10 d old untreated populations of D. pulex maintained in culture conditions. This is consistent with previous findings of direct effects of acute UV-A on survival mechanisms taxed by the UV-induced stress and repair [27].


UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

D. pulex survival with vitamin D3.D. pulex (N = 12) exposed to acute UV-A in the presence of vitamin D3. Blue line = 0 mg D3; Black line = 5 mg D3; Red line = 10 mg D3. No reproduction was observed in any individuals during the experimental period. Error = standard error of the mean across 3 trials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492615&req=5

pone.0131847.g003: D. pulex survival with vitamin D3.D. pulex (N = 12) exposed to acute UV-A in the presence of vitamin D3. Blue line = 0 mg D3; Black line = 5 mg D3; Red line = 10 mg D3. No reproduction was observed in any individuals during the experimental period. Error = standard error of the mean across 3 trials.
Mentions: Acute UV-A-exposed D. pulex trials were conducted to determine survivorship of the D. pulex under the interaction of UV-A (0–54 kJ/m2/nm) and vitamin D3 (Fig 3). Again, intermediate concentrations of added vitamin D3 (5 mg treatment) showed the maximum effectiveness for nearly all UV-A doses (except 36 kJ/m2/nm when 10 mg D3 was greatest). This is consistent with our findings in the chronic UV-A exposures (highest average survival at 5 mg D3), and the lowest average survival for all doses of acute UV-A being the 0 mg vitamin D3 treatment. There was no reproduction in any of the treatments during the 5 d acute UV-A, although low reproduction levels were noted in the 8–10 d old untreated populations of D. pulex maintained in culture conditions. This is consistent with previous findings of direct effects of acute UV-A on survival mechanisms taxed by the UV-induced stress and repair [27].

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus