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UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Synthetic route for the preparation of fluorescently labeled vitamin D3.The carbodiimidazole (CDI) coupling of vitamin D3 and the fluorescent dye linker.
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pone.0131847.g002: Synthetic route for the preparation of fluorescently labeled vitamin D3.The carbodiimidazole (CDI) coupling of vitamin D3 and the fluorescent dye linker.

Mentions: To prepare fluorescently labeled vitamin D32, an appropriately functionalized fluorescent dye 3 [26] and vitamin D3 with a linker appendage 4 were synthesized and coupled (Fig 2). The functionalized fluorescent dye 3 (Fig 2) was prepared in two steps. The first step was initiated by adding iodine (16.2 g) as a solid portion-wise to a solution of phenothiazine (4.0 g) in dichloromethane (400 mL). The mixture was stirred for 12 h and then the phenothiazin-5-ium tetraiodide hydrate solids were filtered to provide a fine dark blue solid (16.33 g). The solids were then washed with dichloromethane (3 × 25 mL). A portion of the solids (9.6 g) was transformed further by stirring as a solution in methanol (88 mL) and diethyl amine (3.5 mL) at ambient temperature in the absence of light. After 7 h the precipitate was filtered and washed with methanol (3 × 43 mL) to give the functionalized fluorescent dye (Fig 2: 3; 8.3 g) as a dark blue solid.


UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Synthetic route for the preparation of fluorescently labeled vitamin D3.The carbodiimidazole (CDI) coupling of vitamin D3 and the fluorescent dye linker.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492615&req=5

pone.0131847.g002: Synthetic route for the preparation of fluorescently labeled vitamin D3.The carbodiimidazole (CDI) coupling of vitamin D3 and the fluorescent dye linker.
Mentions: To prepare fluorescently labeled vitamin D32, an appropriately functionalized fluorescent dye 3 [26] and vitamin D3 with a linker appendage 4 were synthesized and coupled (Fig 2). The functionalized fluorescent dye 3 (Fig 2) was prepared in two steps. The first step was initiated by adding iodine (16.2 g) as a solid portion-wise to a solution of phenothiazine (4.0 g) in dichloromethane (400 mL). The mixture was stirred for 12 h and then the phenothiazin-5-ium tetraiodide hydrate solids were filtered to provide a fine dark blue solid (16.33 g). The solids were then washed with dichloromethane (3 × 25 mL). A portion of the solids (9.6 g) was transformed further by stirring as a solution in methanol (88 mL) and diethyl amine (3.5 mL) at ambient temperature in the absence of light. After 7 h the precipitate was filtered and washed with methanol (3 × 43 mL) to give the functionalized fluorescent dye (Fig 2: 3; 8.3 g) as a dark blue solid.

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus