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UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

D. pulex.D. pulex were exposed to ethylene blue for 15 min, rinsed thoroughly, and imaged using a Maximum Intensity Projection Z Plane Stack (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). The intensity image presented here was used as proof of concept during the characterization of ethylene blue.
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pone.0131847.g001: D. pulex.D. pulex were exposed to ethylene blue for 15 min, rinsed thoroughly, and imaged using a Maximum Intensity Projection Z Plane Stack (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). The intensity image presented here was used as proof of concept during the characterization of ethylene blue.

Mentions: For aquatic invertebrates, such as Daphnia (Fig 1), with potentially high UVR exposure rates and short lifespans, minimizing the accumulation of damaged cells (DNA) is critical. The overall survival and reproduction rates (fitness) of an organism should increase if the accumulated damage is less physiologically costly than avoiding and/or repairing the damage (“net effect”). How can organisms mitigate this damage and repair without increasing the overall physiological costs to the point that their fitness is decreased? “Transparent” compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) [20] are believed to play a significant role in photoprotection of aquatic organisms as opposed to an increase in pigmentation, which is understood to increase predation rates [19]. Known photoprotective compounds are likely not the whole story for aquatic organisms. Previous studies have reported enhanced survival and reproduction of invertebrates with an increase in vitamins and/or antioxidants (e.g. B12 is required in Daphnia pulex for the development of viable offspring [21]; vitamin D is required to maintain fecundity in Moina [22]); antioxidants are required by Chasmagnathus granulata following UV-induced DNA damage [23]). It is theorized that vitamins taken up from the environment, either from natural production or terrestrial runoff, may play an important role in the overall fitness of an organism. If the vitamins are sequestered and used directly or indirectly to the benefit of the organism (decreased net damage, increased survival and reproduction), understanding the role of these compounds is crucial to assessing the ultimate impact of UVR on aquatic organisms and the overall ecosystem structure.


UV-Stressed Daphnia pulex Increase Fitness through Uptake of Vitamin D3.

Connelly SJ, Walling K, Wilbert SA, Catlin DM, Monaghan CE, Hlynchuk S, Meehl PG, Resch LN, Carrera JV, Bowles SM, Clark MD, Tan LT, Cody JA - PLoS ONE (2015)

D. pulex.D. pulex were exposed to ethylene blue for 15 min, rinsed thoroughly, and imaged using a Maximum Intensity Projection Z Plane Stack (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). The intensity image presented here was used as proof of concept during the characterization of ethylene blue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492615&req=5

pone.0131847.g001: D. pulex.D. pulex were exposed to ethylene blue for 15 min, rinsed thoroughly, and imaged using a Maximum Intensity Projection Z Plane Stack (10x, Leica SP5 Scanning Laser Confocal Microscope). The intensity image presented here was used as proof of concept during the characterization of ethylene blue.
Mentions: For aquatic invertebrates, such as Daphnia (Fig 1), with potentially high UVR exposure rates and short lifespans, minimizing the accumulation of damaged cells (DNA) is critical. The overall survival and reproduction rates (fitness) of an organism should increase if the accumulated damage is less physiologically costly than avoiding and/or repairing the damage (“net effect”). How can organisms mitigate this damage and repair without increasing the overall physiological costs to the point that their fitness is decreased? “Transparent” compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) [20] are believed to play a significant role in photoprotection of aquatic organisms as opposed to an increase in pigmentation, which is understood to increase predation rates [19]. Known photoprotective compounds are likely not the whole story for aquatic organisms. Previous studies have reported enhanced survival and reproduction of invertebrates with an increase in vitamins and/or antioxidants (e.g. B12 is required in Daphnia pulex for the development of viable offspring [21]; vitamin D is required to maintain fecundity in Moina [22]); antioxidants are required by Chasmagnathus granulata following UV-induced DNA damage [23]). It is theorized that vitamins taken up from the environment, either from natural production or terrestrial runoff, may play an important role in the overall fitness of an organism. If the vitamins are sequestered and used directly or indirectly to the benefit of the organism (decreased net damage, increased survival and reproduction), understanding the role of these compounds is crucial to assessing the ultimate impact of UVR on aquatic organisms and the overall ecosystem structure.

Bottom Line: Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex.Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired.Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Ultraviolet radiation is known to be highly variable in aquatic ecosystems. It has been suggested that UV-exposed organisms may demonstrate enough phenotypic plasticity to maintain the relative fitness of natural populations. Our long-term objective is to determine the potential photoprotective effect of vitamin D3 on Daphnia pulex exposed to acute or chronic UV radiation. Herein we report our initial findings in this endeavor. D. pulex survival and reproduction (fitness) was monitored for 5 d as a proof of concept study. Significantly higher fitness was observed in the D. pulex with D3 than those without (most extreme effects observed were 0% survival in the absence of D3 and 100% with 10 ppm D3). Vitamin D3 was isolated from the culture media, the algal food (Pseudokirchneriella), and the D. pulex and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin D3 was fluorescently labeled using a phenothiazinium dye and added to cultures of D. pulex. Images demonstrating the uptake of D3 into the tissues and carapace of the D. pulex were acquired. Our initial findings suggest a positive role for D3 in ecosystems as both UV-stressed algae and Daphnia sequester D3, and D. pulex demonstrate increased fitness in the presence of D3.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus