Limits...
Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

Chen K, Li E, Li T, Xu C, Wang X, Lin H, Qin JG, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism.Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills.This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

No MeSH data available.


Relationship between the most influenced pathways and osmoregulation.The dotted-line arrows are indirect effects, and solid-line arrows indicate direct influence.
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pone.0131503.g007: Relationship between the most influenced pathways and osmoregulation.The dotted-line arrows are indirect effects, and solid-line arrows indicate direct influence.

Mentions: This study revealed that osmoregulation is a complex physiological adaptation that involves a number of pathways, especially the lipid metabolism pathway. When L. vannamei is subjected to an osmotic challenge at low salinity, shrimp can improve itself ability against osmotic stress by both “compensatory processes” and “limiting processes," which are the two major osmoregulatory strategies in crustaceans. These two osmoregulatory strategies may utilize various osmoregulatory mechanisms that are largely dependent on energy metabolism and cell membrane regulation (Fig 7). Not only will lipid metabolism supply sufficient energy to ensure the energy metabolism demand, but also many pathways (e.g. lysine degradation, cholinergic synapse, drug metabolism etc.) may indirect affect energy metabolism by generating some metabolic intermediates to indirectly influence the energy metabolism or affect lipid metabolism. On the other hand, other lipid metabolism pathways, including glycolipids and glycosphingolipid, are involved to improve osmoregulation capacity by increasing related enzymatic activity or changing gill permeability. This study provides some insights into the pathways involved in L. vannamei osmoregulation under low salinity. However, the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in L. vannamei are complex and require further study, especially in relation to lipid metabolism and osmoregulation.


Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

Chen K, Li E, Li T, Xu C, Wang X, Lin H, Qin JG, Chen L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relationship between the most influenced pathways and osmoregulation.The dotted-line arrows are indirect effects, and solid-line arrows indicate direct influence.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492601&req=5

pone.0131503.g007: Relationship between the most influenced pathways and osmoregulation.The dotted-line arrows are indirect effects, and solid-line arrows indicate direct influence.
Mentions: This study revealed that osmoregulation is a complex physiological adaptation that involves a number of pathways, especially the lipid metabolism pathway. When L. vannamei is subjected to an osmotic challenge at low salinity, shrimp can improve itself ability against osmotic stress by both “compensatory processes” and “limiting processes," which are the two major osmoregulatory strategies in crustaceans. These two osmoregulatory strategies may utilize various osmoregulatory mechanisms that are largely dependent on energy metabolism and cell membrane regulation (Fig 7). Not only will lipid metabolism supply sufficient energy to ensure the energy metabolism demand, but also many pathways (e.g. lysine degradation, cholinergic synapse, drug metabolism etc.) may indirect affect energy metabolism by generating some metabolic intermediates to indirectly influence the energy metabolism or affect lipid metabolism. On the other hand, other lipid metabolism pathways, including glycolipids and glycosphingolipid, are involved to improve osmoregulation capacity by increasing related enzymatic activity or changing gill permeability. This study provides some insights into the pathways involved in L. vannamei osmoregulation under low salinity. However, the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in L. vannamei are complex and require further study, especially in relation to lipid metabolism and osmoregulation.

Bottom Line: Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism.Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills.This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

No MeSH data available.