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Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

Li Q, Wu L, Hao J, Luo L, Cao Y, Li J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box.The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old.Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Engineering Research Center of Seed and Plant Health (BERC-SPH) / Beijing Key Laboratory of Seed Disease Testing and Control (BKL-SDTC), Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Control of citrus green mold by the VOCs from Ceratocystis fimbriata (4 DPI).(a-b) Experimental design for the bio-control system. (c) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of Penicillium digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. (d) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL and treated by the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (e) Comparison among the positive control (CK+), negative control (CK-) and treated by C. fimbriata volatiles (T). (f) Pathogenicity test of the treated and recovered P. digitatum. T (treated) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL with the treatment by the VOCs form C. fimbriata. CK+ (positive control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. CK- (negative control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL sterile water without treatment. IT = inoculation with treated 2 mm plug of P. digitatum. IR = inoculation with recovered 2 mm plug of P. digitatum.
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pone.0132009.g002: Control of citrus green mold by the VOCs from Ceratocystis fimbriata (4 DPI).(a-b) Experimental design for the bio-control system. (c) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of Penicillium digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. (d) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL and treated by the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (e) Comparison among the positive control (CK+), negative control (CK-) and treated by C. fimbriata volatiles (T). (f) Pathogenicity test of the treated and recovered P. digitatum. T (treated) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL with the treatment by the VOCs form C. fimbriata. CK+ (positive control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. CK- (negative control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL sterile water without treatment. IT = inoculation with treated 2 mm plug of P. digitatum. IR = inoculation with recovered 2 mm plug of P. digitatum.

Mentions: Experiments were conducted with commercially grown peaches and citrus bought from Xiyuan market in Beijing. Disease- and injury- free fruits were selected and surface sanitized in 3% NaClO solution for 5 min. The fruits were rinsed with sterile water three times then placed on a clean bench for aseptic drying. The inoculation method was modified as described [21]. For each fruit, three locations were wounded at the equator of equidistance with a sterile inoculating needle. The depth of wounds was about 5 mm. Then, 10 μL of conidial suspension of M. fructicola (105 conidia/mL on peach) or P. digitatum (105 conidia/mL on citrus) and sterile water were pipetted into two wound locations, leaving the third wound without inoculation as a control. The inoculated fruits were placed in 15 L plastic boxes with two layers of autoclaved medical gauze, soaked with 100 mL of sterile water, placed at the bottom to moisturize and prevent rolling (Fig 2A and 2B). The effect of exposure to C. fimbriata volatiles was detected by placing a specific number of 6-day-old (inoculated with a plus, diameter = 5 mm) C. fimbriata cultures in the boxes. The boxes were placed in an illuminated incubator at 25°C after being closed with fitting plastic lids. The control consisted of inoculated fruits in boxes without inoculated C. fimbriata cultures. The effect of application time for the treatment, VOCs dose and treatment period was determined with the treatment by various amounts of inoculated C. fimbriata cultures per box or different treatment periods: immediately, 24 h, or 48 h, respectively, after inoculation on the fruits. The infected number, lesion size, and control effect were measured and calculated after 4-day treatment. Each experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicate boxes with 10 fruits in each. For lesion size measurement, 10 fruits were randomly selected from the three boxes per each treatment. , a: the length of disease spot (mm), b: the width of diseases spot (mm).


Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

Li Q, Wu L, Hao J, Luo L, Cao Y, Li J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Control of citrus green mold by the VOCs from Ceratocystis fimbriata (4 DPI).(a-b) Experimental design for the bio-control system. (c) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of Penicillium digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. (d) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL and treated by the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (e) Comparison among the positive control (CK+), negative control (CK-) and treated by C. fimbriata volatiles (T). (f) Pathogenicity test of the treated and recovered P. digitatum. T (treated) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL with the treatment by the VOCs form C. fimbriata. CK+ (positive control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. CK- (negative control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL sterile water without treatment. IT = inoculation with treated 2 mm plug of P. digitatum. IR = inoculation with recovered 2 mm plug of P. digitatum.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492557&req=5

pone.0132009.g002: Control of citrus green mold by the VOCs from Ceratocystis fimbriata (4 DPI).(a-b) Experimental design for the bio-control system. (c) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of Penicillium digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. (d) Citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL and treated by the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (e) Comparison among the positive control (CK+), negative control (CK-) and treated by C. fimbriata volatiles (T). (f) Pathogenicity test of the treated and recovered P. digitatum. T (treated) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL with the treatment by the VOCs form C. fimbriata. CK+ (positive control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL conidial suspension of P. digitatum at 105 conidia/mL without treatment. CK- (negative control) = the citrus inoculated with 10 μL sterile water without treatment. IT = inoculation with treated 2 mm plug of P. digitatum. IR = inoculation with recovered 2 mm plug of P. digitatum.
Mentions: Experiments were conducted with commercially grown peaches and citrus bought from Xiyuan market in Beijing. Disease- and injury- free fruits were selected and surface sanitized in 3% NaClO solution for 5 min. The fruits were rinsed with sterile water three times then placed on a clean bench for aseptic drying. The inoculation method was modified as described [21]. For each fruit, three locations were wounded at the equator of equidistance with a sterile inoculating needle. The depth of wounds was about 5 mm. Then, 10 μL of conidial suspension of M. fructicola (105 conidia/mL on peach) or P. digitatum (105 conidia/mL on citrus) and sterile water were pipetted into two wound locations, leaving the third wound without inoculation as a control. The inoculated fruits were placed in 15 L plastic boxes with two layers of autoclaved medical gauze, soaked with 100 mL of sterile water, placed at the bottom to moisturize and prevent rolling (Fig 2A and 2B). The effect of exposure to C. fimbriata volatiles was detected by placing a specific number of 6-day-old (inoculated with a plus, diameter = 5 mm) C. fimbriata cultures in the boxes. The boxes were placed in an illuminated incubator at 25°C after being closed with fitting plastic lids. The control consisted of inoculated fruits in boxes without inoculated C. fimbriata cultures. The effect of application time for the treatment, VOCs dose and treatment period was determined with the treatment by various amounts of inoculated C. fimbriata cultures per box or different treatment periods: immediately, 24 h, or 48 h, respectively, after inoculation on the fruits. The infected number, lesion size, and control effect were measured and calculated after 4-day treatment. Each experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicate boxes with 10 fruits in each. For lesion size measurement, 10 fruits were randomly selected from the three boxes per each treatment. , a: the length of disease spot (mm), b: the width of diseases spot (mm).

Bottom Line: Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box.The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old.Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Engineering Research Center of Seed and Plant Health (BERC-SPH) / Beijing Key Laboratory of Seed Disease Testing and Control (BKL-SDTC), Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus