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Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

Li Q, Wu L, Hao J, Luo L, Cao Y, Li J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box.The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old.Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Engineering Research Center of Seed and Plant Health (BERC-SPH) / Beijing Key Laboratory of Seed Disease Testing and Control (BKL-SDTC), Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dual-culture assay for bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata.(a) Experimental design used with the following test organisms. Plate with C. fimbriata was on the bottom and test pathogen culture was on the top plate with the culture facing down. (b) CK: Monilinia fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (c) CK: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: M. fructicola after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (d) M. fructicola, exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7-day old cultures of C. fimbriata for 5 days, respectively. (e) CK: Penicillium digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (f) CK: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: P. digitatum after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (g) CK: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate for 5 days. T: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate with 5-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (h) CK: Phytophthora capsici growing on a CA plate for 6 days. T: P. capsici growing on a CA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (i) CK: Acidovorax avena growing on a LB plate for 2 days. T: A. avena growing on a LB plate with 2-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata.
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pone.0132009.g001: Dual-culture assay for bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata.(a) Experimental design used with the following test organisms. Plate with C. fimbriata was on the bottom and test pathogen culture was on the top plate with the culture facing down. (b) CK: Monilinia fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (c) CK: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: M. fructicola after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (d) M. fructicola, exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7-day old cultures of C. fimbriata for 5 days, respectively. (e) CK: Penicillium digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (f) CK: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: P. digitatum after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (g) CK: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate for 5 days. T: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate with 5-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (h) CK: Phytophthora capsici growing on a CA plate for 6 days. T: P. capsici growing on a CA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (i) CK: Acidovorax avena growing on a LB plate for 2 days. T: A. avena growing on a LB plate with 2-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata.

Mentions: The bioactivity of C. fimbriata VOCs on test pathogens was determined by measuring the growth of test organisms with double Petri dish dual-culture (Fig 1A). The bioassay system was set up with the bottoms of two 9-cm lidless Petri dishes, which were laid in opposition and then sealed together with two layers of Parafilm (treatment, T). One plate containing PDA or CA, which was on the top of the dual-culture, was inoculated with a plug (diameter = 5 mm) of test fungi or oomycetes, or spread with 100 μL of test bacterial suspension at 106 CFU/mL on LB plate. The other one, placed at the bottom, was a 6-day-old culture of C. fimbriata (diameter of colony of C. fimbriata was about 4 cm) inoculated with a plug (diameter of plug = 5 mm) that produced a certain amount of VOCs. Three replicates were conducted, and a same dual-culture system lacking C. fimbriata was used as the negative control for each pathogen. The cultures were incubated in darkness at 25°C for fungi or oomycetes, or 28°C for bacteria. The growth of the test organisms, including morphology of colony, growth of mycelia, inhibition of mycelial growth, and conidial production, was measured 5 to 7 days post inoculation (DPI) for the fungi and oomycetes as the diameter of the controls reached about 8 cm and 2 DPI for the bacteria.


Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

Li Q, Wu L, Hao J, Luo L, Cao Y, Li J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dual-culture assay for bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata.(a) Experimental design used with the following test organisms. Plate with C. fimbriata was on the bottom and test pathogen culture was on the top plate with the culture facing down. (b) CK: Monilinia fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (c) CK: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: M. fructicola after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (d) M. fructicola, exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7-day old cultures of C. fimbriata for 5 days, respectively. (e) CK: Penicillium digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (f) CK: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: P. digitatum after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (g) CK: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate for 5 days. T: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate with 5-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (h) CK: Phytophthora capsici growing on a CA plate for 6 days. T: P. capsici growing on a CA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (i) CK: Acidovorax avena growing on a LB plate for 2 days. T: A. avena growing on a LB plate with 2-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492557&req=5

pone.0132009.g001: Dual-culture assay for bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata.(a) Experimental design used with the following test organisms. Plate with C. fimbriata was on the bottom and test pathogen culture was on the top plate with the culture facing down. (b) CK: Monilinia fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (c) CK: M. fructicola growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: M. fructicola after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (d) M. fructicola, exposed to 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7-day old cultures of C. fimbriata for 5 days, respectively. (e) CK: Penicillium digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 6 days. T: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (f) CK: P. digitatum growing on a PDA plate for 4 days. R: P. digitatum after 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata transferred to a fresh PDA plate and grown for another 4 days. (g) CK: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate for 5 days. T: P. italicum growing on a PDA plate with 5-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (h) CK: Phytophthora capsici growing on a CA plate for 6 days. T: P. capsici growing on a CA plate with 6-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata. (i) CK: Acidovorax avena growing on a LB plate for 2 days. T: A. avena growing on a LB plate with 2-day exposure to the VOCs from C. fimbriata.
Mentions: The bioactivity of C. fimbriata VOCs on test pathogens was determined by measuring the growth of test organisms with double Petri dish dual-culture (Fig 1A). The bioassay system was set up with the bottoms of two 9-cm lidless Petri dishes, which were laid in opposition and then sealed together with two layers of Parafilm (treatment, T). One plate containing PDA or CA, which was on the top of the dual-culture, was inoculated with a plug (diameter = 5 mm) of test fungi or oomycetes, or spread with 100 μL of test bacterial suspension at 106 CFU/mL on LB plate. The other one, placed at the bottom, was a 6-day-old culture of C. fimbriata (diameter of colony of C. fimbriata was about 4 cm) inoculated with a plug (diameter of plug = 5 mm) that produced a certain amount of VOCs. Three replicates were conducted, and a same dual-culture system lacking C. fimbriata was used as the negative control for each pathogen. The cultures were incubated in darkness at 25°C for fungi or oomycetes, or 28°C for bacteria. The growth of the test organisms, including morphology of colony, growth of mycelia, inhibition of mycelial growth, and conidial production, was measured 5 to 7 days post inoculation (DPI) for the fungi and oomycetes as the diameter of the controls reached about 8 cm and 2 DPI for the bacteria.

Bottom Line: Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box.The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old.Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Engineering Research Center of Seed and Plant Health (BERC-SPH) / Beijing Key Laboratory of Seed Disease Testing and Control (BKL-SDTC), Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus