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A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin.

Deng MJ, Lin XD, Lin QT, Wen DF, Zhang ML, Wang XQ, Gao HC, Xu JP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test.All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism.DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China; Analytical and Testing Center of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of hemolymph samples.PCA score plots (A) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group and control group (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64, ■control group, ●0.25% DNJ group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (B). PCA score plots (C) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group, mixture group, and control group (R2 = 0.858, Q2 = 0.636, ■control group, ●mixture group, ▲latex group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (D).
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pone.0131696.g003: Results of principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of hemolymph samples.PCA score plots (A) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group and control group (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64, ■control group, ●0.25% DNJ group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (B). PCA score plots (C) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group, mixture group, and control group (R2 = 0.858, Q2 = 0.636, ■control group, ●mixture group, ▲latex group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (D).

Mentions: In order to elaborate DNJ-induced changes in the metabolism system and determine related metabolic pathways, NMR spectra of hemolymph were segmented to perform principal component analysis (PCA, Fig 3). As shown in Fig 3A, the 0.25% DNJ group could be obviously discriminated from the control group along the PC1 direction (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64), indicating that the cluster of the 0.25% DNJ group had diverse characteristics compared to the control group. Fig 3B shows corresponding loading plots obtained with color-coded correlation coefficients (/r/) between the 0.25% DNJ group and the control group and display the variables accounting for the differentiation among different groups. The positive regions in the loading plot corresponded to the decreased metabolites in the hemolymph of the 0.25% DNJ group, whereas negative regions corresponded to the increased metabolites in the hemolymph of the 0.25% DNJ group. Thus, Fig 3B revealed that the Eri silkworms of the 0.25% DNJ group excreted the higher levels of leucine, valine, lactate, lysine, and trehalose, but the lower levels of succinate, citrate, o-phosphocholine, glycine and trigonelline than those in the control group.


A 1H-NMR Based Study on Hemolymph Metabolomics in Eri Silkworm after Oral Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin.

Deng MJ, Lin XD, Lin QT, Wen DF, Zhang ML, Wang XQ, Gao HC, Xu JP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Results of principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of hemolymph samples.PCA score plots (A) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group and control group (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64, ■control group, ●0.25% DNJ group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (B). PCA score plots (C) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group, mixture group, and control group (R2 = 0.858, Q2 = 0.636, ■control group, ●mixture group, ▲latex group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (D).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492494&req=5

pone.0131696.g003: Results of principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra of hemolymph samples.PCA score plots (A) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group and control group (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64, ■control group, ●0.25% DNJ group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (B). PCA score plots (C) obtained with 1H NMR spectra of the 0.25% DNJ group, mixture group, and control group (R2 = 0.858, Q2 = 0.636, ■control group, ●mixture group, ▲latex group) and coefficient-coded loading plots (D).
Mentions: In order to elaborate DNJ-induced changes in the metabolism system and determine related metabolic pathways, NMR spectra of hemolymph were segmented to perform principal component analysis (PCA, Fig 3). As shown in Fig 3A, the 0.25% DNJ group could be obviously discriminated from the control group along the PC1 direction (R2 = 0.712, Q2 = 0.64), indicating that the cluster of the 0.25% DNJ group had diverse characteristics compared to the control group. Fig 3B shows corresponding loading plots obtained with color-coded correlation coefficients (/r/) between the 0.25% DNJ group and the control group and display the variables accounting for the differentiation among different groups. The positive regions in the loading plot corresponded to the decreased metabolites in the hemolymph of the 0.25% DNJ group, whereas negative regions corresponded to the increased metabolites in the hemolymph of the 0.25% DNJ group. Thus, Fig 3B revealed that the Eri silkworms of the 0.25% DNJ group excreted the higher levels of leucine, valine, lactate, lysine, and trehalose, but the lower levels of succinate, citrate, o-phosphocholine, glycine and trigonelline than those in the control group.

Bottom Line: Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test.All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism.DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China; Analytical and Testing Center of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
We aimed to investigate whether 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) modulates glycometabolism and has toxicity in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini, Saturniidae). In this paper, hemolymph metabolites were used to explore metabolic changes after oral administration of DNJ or mulberry latex and to characterize the biological function of DNJ at the metabolic and systemic levels. Hemolymph samples were collected from fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworm and ex-vivo high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from the collected hemolymph samples. Then the obtained spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and independent-samples t-test. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis of hemolymph samples indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) were significantly different from the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the groups of 0.25% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the decreased levels of citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and glutamine in hemolymph, the groups of 0.25% DNJ and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1:1) showed the increased levels of trehalose and lactate. In addition, mulberry leaves exude latex was highly toxic to Eri silkworm because rich unidentified high-molecular-weight factor (s) acted as toxic substances. In our results, latex caused 20 deaths among 50 fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkmoth, but DNJ or the mixture did not caused death. All these results suggest that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse glycometabolism by modulating glycometabolism and inhibiting glucogenesis and energy metabolism. DNJ is a secure substance as a single-ingredient antidiabetic medicine due to its nontoxicity and bioactivity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus