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Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

Gron KJ, Montgomery J, Rowley-Conwy P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden.As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers.This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum distance (mm) between summer maxima δ18Omax (bold) and least distance between an individual δ18Omax and δ18Omin (italic).Each bar represents δ18Omax at the top, and δ18Omin at the bottom. Animal #3 is excluded because its δ18Omin cannot represent the actual minimum of the seasonal curve.
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pone.0131267.g003: Maximum distance (mm) between summer maxima δ18Omax (bold) and least distance between an individual δ18Omax and δ18Omin (italic).Each bar represents δ18Omax at the top, and δ18Omin at the bottom. Animal #3 is excluded because its δ18Omin cannot represent the actual minimum of the seasonal curve.

Mentions: Quantitatively, the absolute maximum spread of distance from the ERJ between summer maximum δ18Omax values and the absolute minimum spread between an individual δ18Omax and winter minimum δ18Omin (Fig 3) demonstrates that there is less separation between at least one δ18Omax and one δ18Omin (5.2mm) than between the largest spread of individual δ18Omax values (14.1mm). The hypothesis that births are restricted to a single period of the year, as is expected for a cattle population in northern temperate environments [33], is rejected on these grounds. Cattle births at Almhov cannot be considered seasonal and took place in at least two, probably opposing seasons. If the maximum error of 20.0% is applied to minimize the distances between the δ18O maxima and maximize the smallest distance between δ18O maxima and minima the values become 11.28mm between maxima and 6.24mm between the closest maximum and minimum. Even with > 20% error, the hypothesis that the cattle were all born in the same season can still be rejected.


Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

Gron KJ, Montgomery J, Rowley-Conwy P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Maximum distance (mm) between summer maxima δ18Omax (bold) and least distance between an individual δ18Omax and δ18Omin (italic).Each bar represents δ18Omax at the top, and δ18Omin at the bottom. Animal #3 is excluded because its δ18Omin cannot represent the actual minimum of the seasonal curve.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492493&req=5

pone.0131267.g003: Maximum distance (mm) between summer maxima δ18Omax (bold) and least distance between an individual δ18Omax and δ18Omin (italic).Each bar represents δ18Omax at the top, and δ18Omin at the bottom. Animal #3 is excluded because its δ18Omin cannot represent the actual minimum of the seasonal curve.
Mentions: Quantitatively, the absolute maximum spread of distance from the ERJ between summer maximum δ18Omax values and the absolute minimum spread between an individual δ18Omax and winter minimum δ18Omin (Fig 3) demonstrates that there is less separation between at least one δ18Omax and one δ18Omin (5.2mm) than between the largest spread of individual δ18Omax values (14.1mm). The hypothesis that births are restricted to a single period of the year, as is expected for a cattle population in northern temperate environments [33], is rejected on these grounds. Cattle births at Almhov cannot be considered seasonal and took place in at least two, probably opposing seasons. If the maximum error of 20.0% is applied to minimize the distances between the δ18O maxima and maximize the smallest distance between δ18O maxima and minima the values become 11.28mm between maxima and 6.24mm between the closest maximum and minimum. Even with > 20% error, the hypothesis that the cattle were all born in the same season can still be rejected.

Bottom Line: B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden.As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers.This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus