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Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

Gron KJ, Montgomery J, Rowley-Conwy P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden.As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers.This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Oxygen and Carbon sequential sampling isotopic plots.Distances in mm, periods of developmental overlap eliminated for clarity.
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pone.0131267.g002: Oxygen and Carbon sequential sampling isotopic plots.Distances in mm, periods of developmental overlap eliminated for clarity.

Mentions: Of the larger sample of teeth drilled for carbon and oxygen isotopic ratio analyses, the M1s from all six animals (Tooth numbers 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, and 35) were subsequently re-drilled for the strontium values in their tooth enamel. Teeth were neither bulk-sampled nor sequentially sampled down the length of the cusp, as the goal was not to ascertain potential transhumance or an average value. Instead, the teeth were sampled at a discrete point in the animal’s life in order to obtain a similar, snapshot view of the locality where the cow spent its first weeks and months. A further constraint on sampling was the fact that several of the teeth had incompletely mineralised portions closer to the ERJ. To accommodate this, a zone between 26.1 and 20.4 mm from the ERJ was sampled on each tooth and the particular zone of sampling is indicated in Fig 2. This range was chosen as it was the region on the six teeth which was most consistently close to the ERJ but in all cases also completely mineralised, as there was a degree of variation in the teeth in this regard. While there is some variation in the size of the teeth and their wear, this sampling strategy maximised the mass of the enamel sample, while at the same time mitigating as best as possible sources of variation in the source material. After drilling the enamel from the teeth, samples were prepared and analysed in the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill using standard methodology reported in-depth elsewhere [48].


Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

Gron KJ, Montgomery J, Rowley-Conwy P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Oxygen and Carbon sequential sampling isotopic plots.Distances in mm, periods of developmental overlap eliminated for clarity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492493&req=5

pone.0131267.g002: Oxygen and Carbon sequential sampling isotopic plots.Distances in mm, periods of developmental overlap eliminated for clarity.
Mentions: Of the larger sample of teeth drilled for carbon and oxygen isotopic ratio analyses, the M1s from all six animals (Tooth numbers 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, and 35) were subsequently re-drilled for the strontium values in their tooth enamel. Teeth were neither bulk-sampled nor sequentially sampled down the length of the cusp, as the goal was not to ascertain potential transhumance or an average value. Instead, the teeth were sampled at a discrete point in the animal’s life in order to obtain a similar, snapshot view of the locality where the cow spent its first weeks and months. A further constraint on sampling was the fact that several of the teeth had incompletely mineralised portions closer to the ERJ. To accommodate this, a zone between 26.1 and 20.4 mm from the ERJ was sampled on each tooth and the particular zone of sampling is indicated in Fig 2. This range was chosen as it was the region on the six teeth which was most consistently close to the ERJ but in all cases also completely mineralised, as there was a degree of variation in the teeth in this regard. While there is some variation in the size of the teeth and their wear, this sampling strategy maximised the mass of the enamel sample, while at the same time mitigating as best as possible sources of variation in the source material. After drilling the enamel from the teeth, samples were prepared and analysed in the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill using standard methodology reported in-depth elsewhere [48].

Bottom Line: B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden.As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers.This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus