Limits...
A Transparent Window into Biology: A Primer on Caenorhabditis elegans.

Corsi AK, Wightman B, Chalfie M - Genetics (2015)

Bottom Line: We survey the basic anatomical features, common technical approaches, and important discoveries in C. elegans research.Key to studying C. elegans has been the ability to address biological problems genetically, using both forward and reverse genetics, both at the level of the entire organism and at the level of the single, identified cell.These possibilities make C. elegans useful not only in research laboratories, but also in the classroom where it can be used to excite students who actually can see what is happening inside live cells and tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biology Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 corsi@cua.edu wightman@muhlenberg.edu mc21@columbia.edu.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

C. elegans anatomy. Major anatomical features of a hermaphrodite (A) and male (B) viewed laterally. (A) The dorsal nerve cord (DNC) and ventral nerve cord (VNC) run along the entire length of the animal from the nerve ring. Two of the four quadrants of body wall muscles are shown. (B) The nervous system and muscles are omitted in this view, more clearly revealing the pharynx and intestine. (C) Cross-section through the anterior region of the C. elegans hermaphrodite (location marked with a black line in A) showing the four muscle quadrants surrounded by the epidermis and cuticle with the intestine and gonad housed within the pseudocoelomic cavity. Images are modified from those found at www.wormatlas.org (Altun et al. 2002–2015).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492366&req=5

fig3: C. elegans anatomy. Major anatomical features of a hermaphrodite (A) and male (B) viewed laterally. (A) The dorsal nerve cord (DNC) and ventral nerve cord (VNC) run along the entire length of the animal from the nerve ring. Two of the four quadrants of body wall muscles are shown. (B) The nervous system and muscles are omitted in this view, more clearly revealing the pharynx and intestine. (C) Cross-section through the anterior region of the C. elegans hermaphrodite (location marked with a black line in A) showing the four muscle quadrants surrounded by the epidermis and cuticle with the intestine and gonad housed within the pseudocoelomic cavity. Images are modified from those found at www.wormatlas.org (Altun et al. 2002–2015).

Mentions: Wild-type C. elegans has two sexual forms: self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males (Figure 2 and Figure 3, A and B). The gonad of hermaphrodites forms an ovotestis that first produces haploid amoeboid sperm that are stored in the spermatheca in the L4 stage and then near adulthood the germ line switches fate to produce much larger oocytes. Essentially hermaphrodites are females whose gonads temporarily produce sperm before they produce oocytes. Hermaphrodites can produce up to 300 self-progeny that are fertilized by the stored sperm. If mated with males, hermaphrodites are capable of producing ∼1000 offspring, indicating that hermaphrodite-produced sperm is a limiting factor in self-fertilization. Both sexes are diploid for the five autosomal chromosomes. The sexes differ in that hermaphrodites have two X chromosomes and males have a single X chromosome—C. elegans has no Y chromosome—and the genotype of males is referred to as XO. Sex is determined by the X to autosome (X:A) ratio (Zarkower 2006). The majority of offspring produced by self-fertilization are hermaphrodites; only 0.1–0.2% of the progeny are males due to rare meiotic nondisjunction of the X chromosome. Because hermaphrodites make their own sperm, in genetic crosses self-progeny (oocytes fertilized by the hermaphrodite’s sperm) need to be distinguished from cross-progeny. For example, when hermaphrodites homozygous for a recessive mutation causing a visible mutant phenotype are mated to wild-type males, the self-progeny hermaphrodites show the mutant phenotype and the cross-progeny hermaphrodites do not.


A Transparent Window into Biology: A Primer on Caenorhabditis elegans.

Corsi AK, Wightman B, Chalfie M - Genetics (2015)

C. elegans anatomy. Major anatomical features of a hermaphrodite (A) and male (B) viewed laterally. (A) The dorsal nerve cord (DNC) and ventral nerve cord (VNC) run along the entire length of the animal from the nerve ring. Two of the four quadrants of body wall muscles are shown. (B) The nervous system and muscles are omitted in this view, more clearly revealing the pharynx and intestine. (C) Cross-section through the anterior region of the C. elegans hermaphrodite (location marked with a black line in A) showing the four muscle quadrants surrounded by the epidermis and cuticle with the intestine and gonad housed within the pseudocoelomic cavity. Images are modified from those found at www.wormatlas.org (Altun et al. 2002–2015).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492366&req=5

fig3: C. elegans anatomy. Major anatomical features of a hermaphrodite (A) and male (B) viewed laterally. (A) The dorsal nerve cord (DNC) and ventral nerve cord (VNC) run along the entire length of the animal from the nerve ring. Two of the four quadrants of body wall muscles are shown. (B) The nervous system and muscles are omitted in this view, more clearly revealing the pharynx and intestine. (C) Cross-section through the anterior region of the C. elegans hermaphrodite (location marked with a black line in A) showing the four muscle quadrants surrounded by the epidermis and cuticle with the intestine and gonad housed within the pseudocoelomic cavity. Images are modified from those found at www.wormatlas.org (Altun et al. 2002–2015).
Mentions: Wild-type C. elegans has two sexual forms: self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males (Figure 2 and Figure 3, A and B). The gonad of hermaphrodites forms an ovotestis that first produces haploid amoeboid sperm that are stored in the spermatheca in the L4 stage and then near adulthood the germ line switches fate to produce much larger oocytes. Essentially hermaphrodites are females whose gonads temporarily produce sperm before they produce oocytes. Hermaphrodites can produce up to 300 self-progeny that are fertilized by the stored sperm. If mated with males, hermaphrodites are capable of producing ∼1000 offspring, indicating that hermaphrodite-produced sperm is a limiting factor in self-fertilization. Both sexes are diploid for the five autosomal chromosomes. The sexes differ in that hermaphrodites have two X chromosomes and males have a single X chromosome—C. elegans has no Y chromosome—and the genotype of males is referred to as XO. Sex is determined by the X to autosome (X:A) ratio (Zarkower 2006). The majority of offspring produced by self-fertilization are hermaphrodites; only 0.1–0.2% of the progeny are males due to rare meiotic nondisjunction of the X chromosome. Because hermaphrodites make their own sperm, in genetic crosses self-progeny (oocytes fertilized by the hermaphrodite’s sperm) need to be distinguished from cross-progeny. For example, when hermaphrodites homozygous for a recessive mutation causing a visible mutant phenotype are mated to wild-type males, the self-progeny hermaphrodites show the mutant phenotype and the cross-progeny hermaphrodites do not.

Bottom Line: We survey the basic anatomical features, common technical approaches, and important discoveries in C. elegans research.Key to studying C. elegans has been the ability to address biological problems genetically, using both forward and reverse genetics, both at the level of the entire organism and at the level of the single, identified cell.These possibilities make C. elegans useful not only in research laboratories, but also in the classroom where it can be used to excite students who actually can see what is happening inside live cells and tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biology Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 corsi@cua.edu wightman@muhlenberg.edu mc21@columbia.edu.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus