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Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

Scholz AM, Bünger L, Kongsro J, Baulain U, Mitchell AD - Animal (2015)

Bottom Line: The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation.The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively.CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Livestock Center Oberschleißheim,Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich,Sankt-Hubertusstrasse 12,85764 Oberschleißheim,Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples for image analysis and 3D re-calculation (left software used: sliceOmatic,Tomovision Inc.; right software used: 3D DOCTOR, Able Inc., data from Kremer,2013).
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fig3: Examples for image analysis and 3D re-calculation (left software used: sliceOmatic,Tomovision Inc.; right software used: 3D DOCTOR, Able Inc., data from Kremer,2013).

Mentions: Various free or commercial software packages are available in order to automate imagesegmentation into muscle/lean meat, fat, bone and, if necessary, gastrointestinaltract/abdominal content (Figure 3). This procedurecan be standardized more easily for CT images than for MRI images, because of the ‘unique’application of HU for tissues like bone, muscle (water) and fat. Signals within MR imagesdepend on the tissue-specific relaxation times T1 and T2, including proton density, and onvarious technical conditions and sequence settings such as the magnetic field strength,the RF pulse sequence(s), slice thickness, distance between slices, number of acquisitionsand the specification of (body) coil used.Figure 3


Non-invasive methods for the determination of body and carcass composition in livestock: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound: invited review.

Scholz AM, Bünger L, Kongsro J, Baulain U, Mitchell AD - Animal (2015)

Examples for image analysis and 3D re-calculation (left software used: sliceOmatic,Tomovision Inc.; right software used: 3D DOCTOR, Able Inc., data from Kremer,2013).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492221&req=5

fig3: Examples for image analysis and 3D re-calculation (left software used: sliceOmatic,Tomovision Inc.; right software used: 3D DOCTOR, Able Inc., data from Kremer,2013).
Mentions: Various free or commercial software packages are available in order to automate imagesegmentation into muscle/lean meat, fat, bone and, if necessary, gastrointestinaltract/abdominal content (Figure 3). This procedurecan be standardized more easily for CT images than for MRI images, because of the ‘unique’application of HU for tissues like bone, muscle (water) and fat. Signals within MR imagesdepend on the tissue-specific relaxation times T1 and T2, including proton density, and onvarious technical conditions and sequence settings such as the magnetic field strength,the RF pulse sequence(s), slice thickness, distance between slices, number of acquisitionsand the specification of (body) coil used.Figure 3

Bottom Line: The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation.The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively.CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Livestock Center Oberschleißheim,Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich,Sankt-Hubertusstrasse 12,85764 Oberschleißheim,Germany.

ABSTRACT
The ability to accurately measure body or carcass composition is important for performance testing, grading and finally selection or payment of meat-producing animals. Advances especially in non-invasive techniques are mainly based on the development of electronic and computer-driven methods in order to provide objective phenotypic data. The preference for a specific technique depends on the target animal species or carcass, combined with technical and practical aspects such as accuracy, reliability, cost, portability, speed, ease of use, safety and for in vivo measurements the need for fixation or sedation. The techniques rely on specific device-driven signals, which interact with tissues in the body or carcass at the atomic or molecular level, resulting in secondary or attenuated signals detected by the instruments and analyzed quantitatively. The electromagnetic signal produced by the instrument may originate from mechanical energy such as sound waves (ultrasound - US), 'photon' radiation (X-ray-computed tomography - CT, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) or radio frequency waves (magnetic resonance imaging - MRI). The signals detected by the corresponding instruments are processed to measure, for example, tissue depths, areas, volumes or distributions of fat, muscle (water, protein) and partly bone or bone mineral. Among the above techniques, CT is the most accurate one followed by MRI and DXA, whereas US can be used for all sizes of farm animal species even under field conditions. CT, MRI and US can provide volume data, whereas only DXA delivers immediate whole-body composition results without (2D) image manipulation. A combination of simple US and more expensive CT, MRI or DXA might be applied for farm animal selection programs in a stepwise approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus