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The Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data.

Jürgenstein S, Kurina O, Põldmaa K - Zookeys (2015)

Bottom Line: European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA.New country records, viz.Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51014 Tartu, ESTONIA.

ABSTRACT
European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophilaichneumonea and Mycetophilauninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

No MeSH data available.


Mycetophilaichneumonea Say, 1823, a typical member of the Mycetophilaruficollis group. 1 male habitus 2 head with maxillary palpi, closer view 3 male terminalia, closer view. Scale bar = 1 mm (1), 0.5 mm (2) and 0.2 mm (3). Abbreviations: plp = segments of maxillary palpus; gc = gonocoxite; gst d = dorsal branch of gonostylus; gst v = ventral branch of gonostylus.
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Figure 1: Mycetophilaichneumonea Say, 1823, a typical member of the Mycetophilaruficollis group. 1 male habitus 2 head with maxillary palpi, closer view 3 male terminalia, closer view. Scale bar = 1 mm (1), 0.5 mm (2) and 0.2 mm (3). Abbreviations: plp = segments of maxillary palpus; gc = gonocoxite; gst d = dorsal branch of gonostylus; gst v = ventral branch of gonostylus.

Mentions: One of the most clearly delimited and supposedly monophyletic intrageneric subdivisions is the Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen species-group, introduced by Laštovka (1972). Members of the group (see Figs 1–3) are morphologically characterised by 1) mid tibiae without ventral bristles, 2) bM-Cu setose, with 8 or more setae and 3) wings with central spot only (except one Nearctic species; Laštovka and Kidd 1975). The general outline of male terminalia and absence of ventral setae on mid tibia are shared with Mycetophilafungorum and allied species, which are otherwise devoid of setae on bM-Cu and form another intrageneric group of species. Within the limits of the ruficollis-group, there are 19 currently recognised species: 17 of them are from the Holarctic (Laštovka 1972, Laštovka and Kidd 1975, Chandler and Ribeiro 1995, Wu 1997) and two from the Oriental region (Wu 1997). The records of Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen, 1818 in the Afrotropical region are based probably on misidentifications (cf. Matile 1980) and represent obviously undescribed species. Laštovka (1972) discussed about 30 closely related species in the group which also include supposedly undescribed species, especially those from the Oriental region, known to him at that time. Eleven Holarctic species were covered by a detailed study by Laštovka (1972) including a key to species, while seven species from the Palaearctic region were described subsequently by Laštovka and Kidd (1975), Chandler and Ribeiro (1995) and Wu (1997). All species with known biology are mycetophagous in their larval stage, colonising a variety of Agaricales, Russulales and to lesser extent Boletales, with one species reared from Polyporales (e.g. Yakovlev 1994, Ševčík 2010). However, little is known about the host range of species in this group. On the basis of published data, their larvae seem to be most frequent in fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius and Pholiota, tending to avoid species of Boletales (e.g. Hackman and Meinander 1979, Krivosheina et al. 1986, Kurina 1994, Ševčík 2010, Põldmaa et al. 2015).


The Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data.

Jürgenstein S, Kurina O, Põldmaa K - Zookeys (2015)

Mycetophilaichneumonea Say, 1823, a typical member of the Mycetophilaruficollis group. 1 male habitus 2 head with maxillary palpi, closer view 3 male terminalia, closer view. Scale bar = 1 mm (1), 0.5 mm (2) and 0.2 mm (3). Abbreviations: plp = segments of maxillary palpus; gc = gonocoxite; gst d = dorsal branch of gonostylus; gst v = ventral branch of gonostylus.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492204&req=5

Figure 1: Mycetophilaichneumonea Say, 1823, a typical member of the Mycetophilaruficollis group. 1 male habitus 2 head with maxillary palpi, closer view 3 male terminalia, closer view. Scale bar = 1 mm (1), 0.5 mm (2) and 0.2 mm (3). Abbreviations: plp = segments of maxillary palpus; gc = gonocoxite; gst d = dorsal branch of gonostylus; gst v = ventral branch of gonostylus.
Mentions: One of the most clearly delimited and supposedly monophyletic intrageneric subdivisions is the Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen species-group, introduced by Laštovka (1972). Members of the group (see Figs 1–3) are morphologically characterised by 1) mid tibiae without ventral bristles, 2) bM-Cu setose, with 8 or more setae and 3) wings with central spot only (except one Nearctic species; Laštovka and Kidd 1975). The general outline of male terminalia and absence of ventral setae on mid tibia are shared with Mycetophilafungorum and allied species, which are otherwise devoid of setae on bM-Cu and form another intrageneric group of species. Within the limits of the ruficollis-group, there are 19 currently recognised species: 17 of them are from the Holarctic (Laštovka 1972, Laštovka and Kidd 1975, Chandler and Ribeiro 1995, Wu 1997) and two from the Oriental region (Wu 1997). The records of Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen, 1818 in the Afrotropical region are based probably on misidentifications (cf. Matile 1980) and represent obviously undescribed species. Laštovka (1972) discussed about 30 closely related species in the group which also include supposedly undescribed species, especially those from the Oriental region, known to him at that time. Eleven Holarctic species were covered by a detailed study by Laštovka (1972) including a key to species, while seven species from the Palaearctic region were described subsequently by Laštovka and Kidd (1975), Chandler and Ribeiro (1995) and Wu (1997). All species with known biology are mycetophagous in their larval stage, colonising a variety of Agaricales, Russulales and to lesser extent Boletales, with one species reared from Polyporales (e.g. Yakovlev 1994, Ševčík 2010). However, little is known about the host range of species in this group. On the basis of published data, their larvae seem to be most frequent in fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius and Pholiota, tending to avoid species of Boletales (e.g. Hackman and Meinander 1979, Krivosheina et al. 1986, Kurina 1994, Ševčík 2010, Põldmaa et al. 2015).

Bottom Line: European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA.New country records, viz.Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51014 Tartu, ESTONIA.

ABSTRACT
European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophilaichneumonea and Mycetophilauninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

No MeSH data available.