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Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS).

Finger JD, Varnaccia G, Tylleskär T, Lampert T, Mensink GB - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2).Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1).A high PSEP is associated with consumption of less energy-dense food, more fruits and vegetables and more favourable overall dietary behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. FingerJ@rki.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: The positive association between parental socioeconomic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between fruit intake, vegetable intake, energy-dense food intake, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY) and parental education in a nationwide, cluster-randomized sample of adolescents in Germany.

Methods: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) included 17,641 individuals aged 0-17 years and their parents. Complete information on relevant variables was available for 6359 individuals in the 11-17 age group. The associations between nutrition indicators and parental education were analysed separately for boys and girls, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, region, income, occupation, physical activity and weight status related variables, were calculated for the associations between parental education and nutrition indicators.

Results: After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2). Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1). Among boys and girls with tertiary educated parents compared to those with primary educated parents an OR of 1.3 (CI boys: 1.0-1.7, CI girls: 1.0-1.6) was observed for high vegetable intake. Among boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents an OR of 1.6 (1.2-2.2) was observed for a high HuSKY; the corresponding OR for girls was 1.5 (1.1-1.9).

Conclusions: A high PSEP is associated with consumption of less energy-dense food, more fruits and vegetables and more favourable overall dietary behaviour. Preferably school-based interventions are needed to promote healthy dietary behaviour among German adolescents and a special effort is needed to reach adolescents from low-PSEP families.

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Potential pathways of adolescents dietary behaviour according to parental socioeconomic position
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Fig1: Potential pathways of adolescents dietary behaviour according to parental socioeconomic position

Mentions: These findings are different from those observed among German adults for whom the association between level of education and energy-dense food intake was partly explained by more vigorous work activity (higher TEE) among the lower compared to the higher educated [6], whereas, among adolescents, the same association is partly explained by a higher level of media use and a lower level of familial leisure activity (lower TEE). Potential pathways showing how SEP may influence physical activity and diet related behaviours among adolescents and their parents are presented in Fig. 1. Parents with low education often have more physically-demanding jobs and, in order to recover from physical work, they may stay at home in their leisure time more often which may also imply lower familial leisure time activity compared to parents with high education, who mostly sit at work (office jobs) [4]. Partly because of this, their children may have higher media consumption and lower TEE than adolescents with high education backgrounds [5]. In high-SEP families physical activity patterns of the parents and their children may be more similar, dominated by sitting at work or school. Assuming that familial dietary habits are mainly controlled by the parents, and that physical workers need more high caloric food to compensate for their high work-related energy expenditure [6], their children may also consume more high caloric food compared with the adolescent offspring of sedentary workers. Hence, the dietary intake among adolescents in physical worker families (mainly low SEP families) may correspond less to their own energy requirements. As a result, adolescents with low-SEP parents may be at higher risk to develop overweight or obesity compared to adolescents with high-SEP parents.Fig. 1


Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS).

Finger JD, Varnaccia G, Tylleskär T, Lampert T, Mensink GB - BMC Public Health (2015)

Potential pathways of adolescents dietary behaviour according to parental socioeconomic position
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492169&req=5

Fig1: Potential pathways of adolescents dietary behaviour according to parental socioeconomic position
Mentions: These findings are different from those observed among German adults for whom the association between level of education and energy-dense food intake was partly explained by more vigorous work activity (higher TEE) among the lower compared to the higher educated [6], whereas, among adolescents, the same association is partly explained by a higher level of media use and a lower level of familial leisure activity (lower TEE). Potential pathways showing how SEP may influence physical activity and diet related behaviours among adolescents and their parents are presented in Fig. 1. Parents with low education often have more physically-demanding jobs and, in order to recover from physical work, they may stay at home in their leisure time more often which may also imply lower familial leisure time activity compared to parents with high education, who mostly sit at work (office jobs) [4]. Partly because of this, their children may have higher media consumption and lower TEE than adolescents with high education backgrounds [5]. In high-SEP families physical activity patterns of the parents and their children may be more similar, dominated by sitting at work or school. Assuming that familial dietary habits are mainly controlled by the parents, and that physical workers need more high caloric food to compensate for their high work-related energy expenditure [6], their children may also consume more high caloric food compared with the adolescent offspring of sedentary workers. Hence, the dietary intake among adolescents in physical worker families (mainly low SEP families) may correspond less to their own energy requirements. As a result, adolescents with low-SEP parents may be at higher risk to develop overweight or obesity compared to adolescents with high-SEP parents.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2).Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1).A high PSEP is associated with consumption of less energy-dense food, more fruits and vegetables and more favourable overall dietary behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. FingerJ@rki.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: The positive association between parental socioeconomic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between fruit intake, vegetable intake, energy-dense food intake, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY) and parental education in a nationwide, cluster-randomized sample of adolescents in Germany.

Methods: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) included 17,641 individuals aged 0-17 years and their parents. Complete information on relevant variables was available for 6359 individuals in the 11-17 age group. The associations between nutrition indicators and parental education were analysed separately for boys and girls, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, region, income, occupation, physical activity and weight status related variables, were calculated for the associations between parental education and nutrition indicators.

Results: After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2). Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1). Among boys and girls with tertiary educated parents compared to those with primary educated parents an OR of 1.3 (CI boys: 1.0-1.7, CI girls: 1.0-1.6) was observed for high vegetable intake. Among boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents an OR of 1.6 (1.2-2.2) was observed for a high HuSKY; the corresponding OR for girls was 1.5 (1.1-1.9).

Conclusions: A high PSEP is associated with consumption of less energy-dense food, more fruits and vegetables and more favourable overall dietary behaviour. Preferably school-based interventions are needed to promote healthy dietary behaviour among German adolescents and a special effort is needed to reach adolescents from low-PSEP families.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus