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A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

Dupuy V, Verdier A, Thiaucourt F, Manso-Silván L - Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history.Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia.This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398, Montpellier, France. virginie.dupuy@cirad.fr.

ABSTRACT
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Integration of genomic, geographic, historical and animal movement data to investigate the epidemiology of CCPP. The original location of each Mccp strain is indicated by a symbol, according to the corresponding genotyping group. The green arrows show major CCPP diffusion routes. The dates of the first clinical descriptions of the disease are indicated in red italics. Question marks are placed in areas from where no recent data is available.
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Fig3: Integration of genomic, geographic, historical and animal movement data to investigate the epidemiology of CCPP. The original location of each Mccp strain is indicated by a symbol, according to the corresponding genotyping group. The green arrows show major CCPP diffusion routes. The dates of the first clinical descriptions of the disease are indicated in red italics. Question marks are placed in areas from where no recent data is available.

Mentions: Molecular dating indicated that the MRCA of group C (including strains from Tajikistan, the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey) and group D (represented by one strain from China) (Figure 3) emerged about 200 years ago, around 1810, indicating that CCPP was present for a long time in Asia. The first historical description of CCPP on this continent may well be that made by Walker in India in 1914 [53]. Molecular dating and historical data therefore suggest that the Asian continent may be the cradle of CCPP. In the Arabian Peninsula, most of the genotyping groups were observed, representing both evolutionary lineages (Figure 3). This finding is not surprising, since this region is known to extensively import animals from various origins, particularly for Muslim feasts [16]. On the other hand, Turkey has been known to export animals to many different areas for a long time [52]. In the present study, two different groups were identified in this country (Figure 3). While the occurrence of group E in North Africa and Turkey is in agreement with animal movements reflecting well known Mediterranean trading routes established during the Ottoman Empire, the identification of group C in Turkey reveals the great complexity of animal movements in this region. The scarcity of strains from the West, but also from Central and East Asia hampers the precise determination of the emergence, diversity and distribution of Mccp in Asia.Figure 3


A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

Dupuy V, Verdier A, Thiaucourt F, Manso-Silván L - Vet. Res. (2015)

Integration of genomic, geographic, historical and animal movement data to investigate the epidemiology of CCPP. The original location of each Mccp strain is indicated by a symbol, according to the corresponding genotyping group. The green arrows show major CCPP diffusion routes. The dates of the first clinical descriptions of the disease are indicated in red italics. Question marks are placed in areas from where no recent data is available.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492101&req=5

Fig3: Integration of genomic, geographic, historical and animal movement data to investigate the epidemiology of CCPP. The original location of each Mccp strain is indicated by a symbol, according to the corresponding genotyping group. The green arrows show major CCPP diffusion routes. The dates of the first clinical descriptions of the disease are indicated in red italics. Question marks are placed in areas from where no recent data is available.
Mentions: Molecular dating indicated that the MRCA of group C (including strains from Tajikistan, the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey) and group D (represented by one strain from China) (Figure 3) emerged about 200 years ago, around 1810, indicating that CCPP was present for a long time in Asia. The first historical description of CCPP on this continent may well be that made by Walker in India in 1914 [53]. Molecular dating and historical data therefore suggest that the Asian continent may be the cradle of CCPP. In the Arabian Peninsula, most of the genotyping groups were observed, representing both evolutionary lineages (Figure 3). This finding is not surprising, since this region is known to extensively import animals from various origins, particularly for Muslim feasts [16]. On the other hand, Turkey has been known to export animals to many different areas for a long time [52]. In the present study, two different groups were identified in this country (Figure 3). While the occurrence of group E in North Africa and Turkey is in agreement with animal movements reflecting well known Mediterranean trading routes established during the Ottoman Empire, the identification of group C in Turkey reveals the great complexity of animal movements in this region. The scarcity of strains from the West, but also from Central and East Asia hampers the precise determination of the emergence, diversity and distribution of Mccp in Asia.Figure 3

Bottom Line: A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history.Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia.This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398, Montpellier, France. virginie.dupuy@cirad.fr.

ABSTRACT
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus