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The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

Mortimer ST, van der Horst G, Mortimer D - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology.However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis.Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oozoa Biomedical, West Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spermatozoa from an Angus bull hyperactivated in capacitating medium with 10 mmol l-1 caffeine analyzed using the SCA (a). The numerous starspin patterns in the upper panel can be easily selected and their individual kinematic values can be recorded (b).29
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Figure 2: Spermatozoa from an Angus bull hyperactivated in capacitating medium with 10 mmol l-1 caffeine analyzed using the SCA (a). The numerous starspin patterns in the upper panel can be easily selected and their individual kinematic values can be recorded (b).29

Mentions: The SCA properties menu allows users to easily change many operational parameters including frame rate, number of images captured, for almost any chamber type/depth, cut-off points for immotile cells and progressive motility, as well as rapid, medium slow swimming sperm, average path smoothing from 3 to 15 track points (important for hyperactivation assessments using ALH), and settings to adapt sperm motility capturing for almost any animal species. No specific modules are required as many different species can be selected for ideal settings from the menu, or settings can be easily adapted and optimized for a new species. In addition, intelligent filters can be selected to further optimize sperm recognition/tail detection, debris rejection and advanced analysis in black and white mode (no greyscale) for semen samples with extremely “noisy” backgrounds (full of debris) as well as a filter system for drifting including Brownian movement and at least most collisions. Together these features assist greatly in the more accurate determination of percentage sperm motility. The SCA can also perform motility and vitality analyses simultaneously in fluorescent mode (only detecting DNA), which eliminates the problem of debris for human semen and in, domestic animals, the fat droplets in egg yolk-base cryopreservation extenders for freeze/thaw quality testing. The motility of spermatozoa in any analyzed field can be replayed with track overlays in a broad selection of colours. For example, rapid spermatozoa in green, or hyperactivated sperm in yellow, or different colours for other motility ratings based on either default (WHO4/528) or tailor-made settings. Finally it is possible to zoom into any analyzed spermatozoon to show the details of the sperm motility track and make an individual report on the selected cell. This is of particular value in establishing the kinematic characteristics of a particular sperm motility pattern (Figure 2). Yet, like all other CASA systems, it is difficult to analyze sperm concentration and motility accurately, if at all, when severe clumping is present.


The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

Mortimer ST, van der Horst G, Mortimer D - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Spermatozoa from an Angus bull hyperactivated in capacitating medium with 10 mmol l-1 caffeine analyzed using the SCA (a). The numerous starspin patterns in the upper panel can be easily selected and their individual kinematic values can be recorded (b).29
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492043&req=5

Figure 2: Spermatozoa from an Angus bull hyperactivated in capacitating medium with 10 mmol l-1 caffeine analyzed using the SCA (a). The numerous starspin patterns in the upper panel can be easily selected and their individual kinematic values can be recorded (b).29
Mentions: The SCA properties menu allows users to easily change many operational parameters including frame rate, number of images captured, for almost any chamber type/depth, cut-off points for immotile cells and progressive motility, as well as rapid, medium slow swimming sperm, average path smoothing from 3 to 15 track points (important for hyperactivation assessments using ALH), and settings to adapt sperm motility capturing for almost any animal species. No specific modules are required as many different species can be selected for ideal settings from the menu, or settings can be easily adapted and optimized for a new species. In addition, intelligent filters can be selected to further optimize sperm recognition/tail detection, debris rejection and advanced analysis in black and white mode (no greyscale) for semen samples with extremely “noisy” backgrounds (full of debris) as well as a filter system for drifting including Brownian movement and at least most collisions. Together these features assist greatly in the more accurate determination of percentage sperm motility. The SCA can also perform motility and vitality analyses simultaneously in fluorescent mode (only detecting DNA), which eliminates the problem of debris for human semen and in, domestic animals, the fat droplets in egg yolk-base cryopreservation extenders for freeze/thaw quality testing. The motility of spermatozoa in any analyzed field can be replayed with track overlays in a broad selection of colours. For example, rapid spermatozoa in green, or hyperactivated sperm in yellow, or different colours for other motility ratings based on either default (WHO4/528) or tailor-made settings. Finally it is possible to zoom into any analyzed spermatozoon to show the details of the sperm motility track and make an individual report on the selected cell. This is of particular value in establishing the kinematic characteristics of a particular sperm motility pattern (Figure 2). Yet, like all other CASA systems, it is difficult to analyze sperm concentration and motility accurately, if at all, when severe clumping is present.

Bottom Line: CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology.However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis.Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oozoa Biomedical, West Vancouver, BC, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus