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RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family.

Sutherland JM, Siddall NA, Hime GR, McLaughlin EA - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted.We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis.This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mechanisms of posttranscriptional control regulated by RNA binding proteins. Capping (section in this article) describes the addition of a 7-methylguanosine to the 5’ end of nascent mRNA, RBPs bind to the cap and promote mRNA stability. Pre-mRNA splicing (section in this article) describes the excision of noncoding introns from nascent mRNA regulated by numerous RBPs within the macromolecular spliceosome. 3’-end cleavage and polyadenylation (section in this article) involves cleavage at a defined site and the 3’-end of fully transcribed pre-mRNA followed by the addition of 150–200 adenosine residues, facilitated by a complex of RBPs. mRNA export (section in this article) refers to the shuttling of mature mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex to the cytoplasm, mediated by the association of RBPs with specific transcripts. MRNA stability (section in this article) can be modulated by transcript associations with specific RBPs, poly(A) tail alterations and decapping often precede rapid degradation. Translation (section in this article) is orchestrated by a complex of RBPs, known as polysomes, RBPs can also modulate translation via exonuclease degradation or sequestering of transcripts in protective cytoplasmic compartments. RBP: RNA binding proteins.
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Figure 2: Mechanisms of posttranscriptional control regulated by RNA binding proteins. Capping (section in this article) describes the addition of a 7-methylguanosine to the 5’ end of nascent mRNA, RBPs bind to the cap and promote mRNA stability. Pre-mRNA splicing (section in this article) describes the excision of noncoding introns from nascent mRNA regulated by numerous RBPs within the macromolecular spliceosome. 3’-end cleavage and polyadenylation (section in this article) involves cleavage at a defined site and the 3’-end of fully transcribed pre-mRNA followed by the addition of 150–200 adenosine residues, facilitated by a complex of RBPs. mRNA export (section in this article) refers to the shuttling of mature mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex to the cytoplasm, mediated by the association of RBPs with specific transcripts. MRNA stability (section in this article) can be modulated by transcript associations with specific RBPs, poly(A) tail alterations and decapping often precede rapid degradation. Translation (section in this article) is orchestrated by a complex of RBPs, known as polysomes, RBPs can also modulate translation via exonuclease degradation or sequestering of transcripts in protective cytoplasmic compartments. RBP: RNA binding proteins.

Mentions: Within the cell, RBPs function at all levels of RNA metabolism. Assembling on nascent and processed mRNAs, RBPs have the ability to govern gene regulation at the posttranscriptional level in both health and disease. Here, we divide the mechanisms utilized by RBPs into six sub-categories in terms of posttranscriptional regulatory processes (Figure 2).


RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family.

Sutherland JM, Siddall NA, Hime GR, McLaughlin EA - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Mechanisms of posttranscriptional control regulated by RNA binding proteins. Capping (section in this article) describes the addition of a 7-methylguanosine to the 5’ end of nascent mRNA, RBPs bind to the cap and promote mRNA stability. Pre-mRNA splicing (section in this article) describes the excision of noncoding introns from nascent mRNA regulated by numerous RBPs within the macromolecular spliceosome. 3’-end cleavage and polyadenylation (section in this article) involves cleavage at a defined site and the 3’-end of fully transcribed pre-mRNA followed by the addition of 150–200 adenosine residues, facilitated by a complex of RBPs. mRNA export (section in this article) refers to the shuttling of mature mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex to the cytoplasm, mediated by the association of RBPs with specific transcripts. MRNA stability (section in this article) can be modulated by transcript associations with specific RBPs, poly(A) tail alterations and decapping often precede rapid degradation. Translation (section in this article) is orchestrated by a complex of RBPs, known as polysomes, RBPs can also modulate translation via exonuclease degradation or sequestering of transcripts in protective cytoplasmic compartments. RBP: RNA binding proteins.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492041&req=5

Figure 2: Mechanisms of posttranscriptional control regulated by RNA binding proteins. Capping (section in this article) describes the addition of a 7-methylguanosine to the 5’ end of nascent mRNA, RBPs bind to the cap and promote mRNA stability. Pre-mRNA splicing (section in this article) describes the excision of noncoding introns from nascent mRNA regulated by numerous RBPs within the macromolecular spliceosome. 3’-end cleavage and polyadenylation (section in this article) involves cleavage at a defined site and the 3’-end of fully transcribed pre-mRNA followed by the addition of 150–200 adenosine residues, facilitated by a complex of RBPs. mRNA export (section in this article) refers to the shuttling of mature mRNAs through the nuclear pore complex to the cytoplasm, mediated by the association of RBPs with specific transcripts. MRNA stability (section in this article) can be modulated by transcript associations with specific RBPs, poly(A) tail alterations and decapping often precede rapid degradation. Translation (section in this article) is orchestrated by a complex of RBPs, known as polysomes, RBPs can also modulate translation via exonuclease degradation or sequestering of transcripts in protective cytoplasmic compartments. RBP: RNA binding proteins.
Mentions: Within the cell, RBPs function at all levels of RNA metabolism. Assembling on nascent and processed mRNAs, RBPs have the ability to govern gene regulation at the posttranscriptional level in both health and disease. Here, we divide the mechanisms utilized by RBPs into six sub-categories in terms of posttranscriptional regulatory processes (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted.We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis.This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus