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RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family.

Sutherland JM, Siddall NA, Hime GR, McLaughlin EA - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted.We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis.This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. Spermatogonial stem cells then undergo mitotic self-maintenance and mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes are transcriptionally arrested during homologous recombination and then continue through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa which occurs independently of RNA synthesis. The bar describes the transcriptional status relative to the stage of germ cell development.
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Figure 1: Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. Spermatogonial stem cells then undergo mitotic self-maintenance and mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes are transcriptionally arrested during homologous recombination and then continue through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa which occurs independently of RNA synthesis. The bar describes the transcriptional status relative to the stage of germ cell development.

Mentions: Spermatogenesis defines the maturation process of male gametes and is one of the most complex differentiation events that occur within developmental biology, necessitating the controlled regulation of gene expression (Figure 1). Within the male testis, spermatogenesis commences shortly after birth with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes to spermatogonia. These spermatogonia provide the pool of stem cells essential for the continual production of spermatozoa throughout postpubertal life. Spermatogonial stem cells undergo a series of mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes then go through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa.


RNA binding proteins in spermatogenesis: an in depth focus on the Musashi family.

Sutherland JM, Siddall NA, Hime GR, McLaughlin EA - Asian J. Androl. (2015 Jul-Aug)

Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. Spermatogonial stem cells then undergo mitotic self-maintenance and mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes are transcriptionally arrested during homologous recombination and then continue through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa which occurs independently of RNA synthesis. The bar describes the transcriptional status relative to the stage of germ cell development.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492041&req=5

Figure 1: Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. Spermatogonial stem cells then undergo mitotic self-maintenance and mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes are transcriptionally arrested during homologous recombination and then continue through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa which occurs independently of RNA synthesis. The bar describes the transcriptional status relative to the stage of germ cell development.
Mentions: Spermatogenesis defines the maturation process of male gametes and is one of the most complex differentiation events that occur within developmental biology, necessitating the controlled regulation of gene expression (Figure 1). Within the male testis, spermatogenesis commences shortly after birth with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes to spermatogonia. These spermatogonia provide the pool of stem cells essential for the continual production of spermatozoa throughout postpubertal life. Spermatogonial stem cells undergo a series of mitotic amplifications to produce primary spermatocytes. These spermatocytes then go through two rounds of meiosis to form haploid round spermatids. Postmeiotic spermatid differentiation (spermiogenesis) defines the profound morphological changes that mark transition into elongating spermatids and the progressive development of immature spermatozoa.

Bottom Line: The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted.We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis.This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Controlled gene regulation during gamete development is vital for maintaining reproductive potential. During the complex process of mammalian spermatogenesis, male germ cells experience extended periods of the inactive transcription despite heavy translational requirements for continued growth and differentiation. Hence, spermatogenesis is highly reliant on mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, facilitated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs), which remain abundantly expressed throughout this process. One such group of proteins is the Musashi family, previously identified as critical regulators of testis germ cell development and meiosis in Drosophila, and also shown to be vital to sperm development and reproductive potential in the mouse. This review describes the role and function of RBPs within the scope of male germ cell development, focusing on our recent knowledge of the Musashi proteins in spermatogenesis. The functional mechanisms utilized by RBPs within the cell are outlined in depth, and the significance of sub-cellular localization and stage-specific expression in relation to the mode and impact of posttranscriptional regulation is also highlighted. We emphasize the historical role of the Musashi family of RBPs in stem cell function and cell fate determination, as originally characterized in Drosophila and Xenopus, and conclude with our current understanding of the differential roles and functions of the mammalian Musashi proteins, Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, with a primary focus on our findings in spermatogenesis. This review highlights both the essential contribution of RBPs to posttranscriptional regulation and the importance of the Musashi family as master regulators of male gamete development.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus