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Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

S. elaeagnifolium transcript abundance in wounded leaves versus the control-unwounded leaves. Control corresponds to unwounded leaves collected from three plants; 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h are the time points when wounded leaves from four plants were collected. Each plant in each time point is one biological replication. The bars represent the expression of each gene in the pooled leaves of the four biological replications-plants. A putative S. elaeagnifolium AOC gene is used as the wounding monitoring gene. S. elaeagnifolium EF1a was used as reference. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the control and the samples (p < 0.05)
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Fig5: S. elaeagnifolium transcript abundance in wounded leaves versus the control-unwounded leaves. Control corresponds to unwounded leaves collected from three plants; 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h are the time points when wounded leaves from four plants were collected. Each plant in each time point is one biological replication. The bars represent the expression of each gene in the pooled leaves of the four biological replications-plants. A putative S. elaeagnifolium AOC gene is used as the wounding monitoring gene. S. elaeagnifolium EF1a was used as reference. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the control and the samples (p < 0.05)

Mentions: As shown in Fig. 5, wounding of S. elaeagnifolium leaves induced the expression of the S. elaeagnifolium AOC homolog gene in all time points tested, providing evidence that plants undertake responses related to the wounding stress. The expression of sesquiterpene - caryophyllene synthase gene cl7653 was increased in all wounding time points compared to the control, the unwounded leaves (leaves from three independent controls-plants). The increase in the expression of cl7653 was quickly recorded at the time point 30 min after wounding. Yet the most pronounced increase in the expression of the caryophyllene synthase cl7653 was 2 h after wounding where the gene was expressed nearly 25 times significantly more than in the control. At the last time point, 4 h after wounding, the cl7653 expression was still significantly higher than the control but less than in the 1 and 2 h time points. On the other hand, the expression of unigene2314 - putative DXS2 gene is induced later than that of cl7653. However in its peak of expression, also at the 2 h after wounding time point, unigene2314 was expressed 50 times more significantly than in the control. Interestingly its expression fell sharply reaching the same expression as in the control unwounded leaves at 4 h after wounding. The expression of putative HMGR1 - cl1634 and KS - cl1310 remained unchanged (data not shown).Fig. 5


Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

S. elaeagnifolium transcript abundance in wounded leaves versus the control-unwounded leaves. Control corresponds to unwounded leaves collected from three plants; 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h are the time points when wounded leaves from four plants were collected. Each plant in each time point is one biological replication. The bars represent the expression of each gene in the pooled leaves of the four biological replications-plants. A putative S. elaeagnifolium AOC gene is used as the wounding monitoring gene. S. elaeagnifolium EF1a was used as reference. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the control and the samples (p < 0.05)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492009&req=5

Fig5: S. elaeagnifolium transcript abundance in wounded leaves versus the control-unwounded leaves. Control corresponds to unwounded leaves collected from three plants; 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h are the time points when wounded leaves from four plants were collected. Each plant in each time point is one biological replication. The bars represent the expression of each gene in the pooled leaves of the four biological replications-plants. A putative S. elaeagnifolium AOC gene is used as the wounding monitoring gene. S. elaeagnifolium EF1a was used as reference. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the control and the samples (p < 0.05)
Mentions: As shown in Fig. 5, wounding of S. elaeagnifolium leaves induced the expression of the S. elaeagnifolium AOC homolog gene in all time points tested, providing evidence that plants undertake responses related to the wounding stress. The expression of sesquiterpene - caryophyllene synthase gene cl7653 was increased in all wounding time points compared to the control, the unwounded leaves (leaves from three independent controls-plants). The increase in the expression of cl7653 was quickly recorded at the time point 30 min after wounding. Yet the most pronounced increase in the expression of the caryophyllene synthase cl7653 was 2 h after wounding where the gene was expressed nearly 25 times significantly more than in the control. At the last time point, 4 h after wounding, the cl7653 expression was still significantly higher than the control but less than in the 1 and 2 h time points. On the other hand, the expression of unigene2314 - putative DXS2 gene is induced later than that of cl7653. However in its peak of expression, also at the 2 h after wounding time point, unigene2314 was expressed 50 times more significantly than in the control. Interestingly its expression fell sharply reaching the same expression as in the control unwounded leaves at 4 h after wounding. The expression of putative HMGR1 - cl1634 and KS - cl1310 remained unchanged (data not shown).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus