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Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparative GC/MS chromatographs for unwounded (magenta line) and wounded leaves (black line). Indicated peaks 1 and 2 correspond to (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene respectively
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Fig4: Comparative GC/MS chromatographs for unwounded (magenta line) and wounded leaves (black line). Indicated peaks 1 and 2 correspond to (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene respectively

Mentions: The substances induced in wounded leaves are included in Table 5. What is interesting to point out is that the majority of the compounds with peak area over 0.2 % are aldehydes previously associated with wounding responses. (E)-caryophyllene is also induced by the wounding procedure as it was detected in the GC/MS chromatogram of the wounded leaves at 23.83 min. From Fig. 4, it is obvious that the characteristic peaks of (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene occur only in the chromatogram of the wounded leaves. The presence of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool in wounded leaves was also validated by comparing both the peak retention times and mass spectra between the unknown samples and standards. The mass spectra of the later as acquired from unknown samples are illustrated in figures in Additional file 5: Figure S4 and Additional files 6: Figure S5 respectiverly, with typical mass fragments at m/z 133, 93, 69 for (E)-caryophyllene and 69, 81, 41 for geranyl linalool respectively.Fig. 4


Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

Comparative GC/MS chromatographs for unwounded (magenta line) and wounded leaves (black line). Indicated peaks 1 and 2 correspond to (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene respectively
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492009&req=5

Fig4: Comparative GC/MS chromatographs for unwounded (magenta line) and wounded leaves (black line). Indicated peaks 1 and 2 correspond to (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene respectively
Mentions: The substances induced in wounded leaves are included in Table 5. What is interesting to point out is that the majority of the compounds with peak area over 0.2 % are aldehydes previously associated with wounding responses. (E)-caryophyllene is also induced by the wounding procedure as it was detected in the GC/MS chromatogram of the wounded leaves at 23.83 min. From Fig. 4, it is obvious that the characteristic peaks of (Z)-jasmone and (E)-caryophyllene occur only in the chromatogram of the wounded leaves. The presence of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool in wounded leaves was also validated by comparing both the peak retention times and mass spectra between the unknown samples and standards. The mass spectra of the later as acquired from unknown samples are illustrated in figures in Additional file 5: Figure S4 and Additional files 6: Figure S5 respectiverly, with typical mass fragments at m/z 133, 93, 69 for (E)-caryophyllene and 69, 81, 41 for geranyl linalool respectively.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus