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Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Alignment of S. elaeagnifolium deduced amino acid sequences with their related tomato proteins. a Tomato TPS9, TPS10 and TPS12 and the cl7653 predicted protein alignment. TPS9 (also called SST1) and TPS12 (also called CAHS) are closely related. Transcript cl7653 from S. elaeagnifolium resembles both and TPS10. The motif DDxxD, engaged in cofactor binding is fully conserved in the four proteins. The NSE/DTE motif is present as (N,D)DIVGHE(D,V,H)E following its general form (N, D)D(L, I, V)X(S, T)XXXE [61]; the fifth amino acid is a glycine (G) instead of serine (S) or threonine (T). The alignment was created by ClustalW and edited with Jalview. Amino acids that share the same coloring have similar biochemical properties. b Tomato TPS24 and cl1310 predicted protein alignment. The parts of the alignment depicted contain the motifs DDxxD (highlighted in red) and NSE/DTE (highlighted in green)
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Fig2: Alignment of S. elaeagnifolium deduced amino acid sequences with their related tomato proteins. a Tomato TPS9, TPS10 and TPS12 and the cl7653 predicted protein alignment. TPS9 (also called SST1) and TPS12 (also called CAHS) are closely related. Transcript cl7653 from S. elaeagnifolium resembles both and TPS10. The motif DDxxD, engaged in cofactor binding is fully conserved in the four proteins. The NSE/DTE motif is present as (N,D)DIVGHE(D,V,H)E following its general form (N, D)D(L, I, V)X(S, T)XXXE [61]; the fifth amino acid is a glycine (G) instead of serine (S) or threonine (T). The alignment was created by ClustalW and edited with Jalview. Amino acids that share the same coloring have similar biochemical properties. b Tomato TPS24 and cl1310 predicted protein alignment. The parts of the alignment depicted contain the motifs DDxxD (highlighted in red) and NSE/DTE (highlighted in green)

Mentions: The alignment of cl7653 predicted protein sequence with closely related tomato proteins TPS9-sesquiterpene synthase 1 [NCBI: NP_001234481], TPS10 and TPS12 (also known as caryophyllene/α-humulene synthase - CAHS) [GenBank: AEP82783] shows a high conservation of amino acids throughout their length (Fig. 2a). TPS9 and TPS12 are known and characterized sesquiterpene synthases. The deduced cl7653 protein contains the DDxxD and NSE/DTE motifs (both boxed in Fig. 2a) that characterize TPS proteins.Fig. 2


Use of the de novo transcriptome analysis of silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) to identify gene expression changes associated with wounding and terpene biosynthesis.

Tsaballa A, Nikolaidis A, Trikka F, Ignea C, Kampranis SC, Makris AM, Argiriou A - BMC Genomics (2015)

Alignment of S. elaeagnifolium deduced amino acid sequences with their related tomato proteins. a Tomato TPS9, TPS10 and TPS12 and the cl7653 predicted protein alignment. TPS9 (also called SST1) and TPS12 (also called CAHS) are closely related. Transcript cl7653 from S. elaeagnifolium resembles both and TPS10. The motif DDxxD, engaged in cofactor binding is fully conserved in the four proteins. The NSE/DTE motif is present as (N,D)DIVGHE(D,V,H)E following its general form (N, D)D(L, I, V)X(S, T)XXXE [61]; the fifth amino acid is a glycine (G) instead of serine (S) or threonine (T). The alignment was created by ClustalW and edited with Jalview. Amino acids that share the same coloring have similar biochemical properties. b Tomato TPS24 and cl1310 predicted protein alignment. The parts of the alignment depicted contain the motifs DDxxD (highlighted in red) and NSE/DTE (highlighted in green)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4492009&req=5

Fig2: Alignment of S. elaeagnifolium deduced amino acid sequences with their related tomato proteins. a Tomato TPS9, TPS10 and TPS12 and the cl7653 predicted protein alignment. TPS9 (also called SST1) and TPS12 (also called CAHS) are closely related. Transcript cl7653 from S. elaeagnifolium resembles both and TPS10. The motif DDxxD, engaged in cofactor binding is fully conserved in the four proteins. The NSE/DTE motif is present as (N,D)DIVGHE(D,V,H)E following its general form (N, D)D(L, I, V)X(S, T)XXXE [61]; the fifth amino acid is a glycine (G) instead of serine (S) or threonine (T). The alignment was created by ClustalW and edited with Jalview. Amino acids that share the same coloring have similar biochemical properties. b Tomato TPS24 and cl1310 predicted protein alignment. The parts of the alignment depicted contain the motifs DDxxD (highlighted in red) and NSE/DTE (highlighted in green)
Mentions: The alignment of cl7653 predicted protein sequence with closely related tomato proteins TPS9-sesquiterpene synthase 1 [NCBI: NP_001234481], TPS10 and TPS12 (also known as caryophyllene/α-humulene synthase - CAHS) [GenBank: AEP82783] shows a high conservation of amino acids throughout their length (Fig. 2a). TPS9 and TPS12 are known and characterized sesquiterpene synthases. The deduced cl7653 protein contains the DDxxD and NSE/DTE motifs (both boxed in Fig. 2a) that characterize TPS proteins.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses.The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene.Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), P.O. Box 60361, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece. afroditi.tsampalla@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive weed of the Solanaceae family, is poorly studied although it poses a significant threat to crops. Here the analysis of the transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium is presented, as a means to explore the biology of this species and to identify genes related to its adaptation to environmental stress. One of the basic mechanisms by which plants respond to environmental stress is through the synthesis of specific secondary metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores and microorganisms, or serve as signaling molecules. One important such group of secondary metabolites are terpenes.

Results: By next-generation sequencing, the flower/leaf transcriptome of S. elaeagnifolium was sequenced and de novo assembled into 75,618 unigenes. Among the unigenes identified, several corresponded to genes involved in terpene biosynthesis; these included terpene synthases (TPSs) and genes of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. Functional characterization of two of the TPSs showed that one produced the sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene and the second produced the monoterpene camphene. Analysis of wounded S. elaeagnifolium leaves has shown significant increase of the concentration of (E)-caryophyllene and geranyl linalool, two terpenes implicated in stress responses. The increased production of (E)-caryophyllene was matched to the induced expression of the corresponding TPS gene. Wounding also led to the increased expression of the putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 2 (DXS2) gene, a key enzyme of the MEP pathway, corroborating the overall increased output of terpene biosynthesis.

Conclusions: The reported S. elaeagnifolium de novo transcriptome provides a valuable sequence database that could facilitate study of this invasive weed and contribute to our understanding of the highly diverse Solanaceae family. Analysis of genes and pathways involved in the plant's interaction with the environment will help to elucidate the mechanisms that underly the intricate features of this unique Solanum species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus