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Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals.

Aak A, Rukke BA, Soleng A, Rosnes MK - Physiol. Entomol. (2014)

Bottom Line: After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded.Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night.Peak responses are always highest during the night.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of typical recordings of Cimex lectularius activity in a mixed population of five males and five females during a 14-day experimental period. (A) Control series without stimuli. (B) Human stimulation series with spikes of activity related to human presence. The grey background indicates night, and the white background indicates lights on.
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fig03: Example of typical recordings of Cimex lectularius activity in a mixed population of five males and five females during a 14-day experimental period. (A) Control series without stimuli. (B) Human stimulation series with spikes of activity related to human presence. The grey background indicates night, and the white background indicates lights on.

Mentions: Overall activity in the control series with no stimulation was low. A mean ± SE of 0.02 ± 0.01 individuals moved during the 10-min observation period per hour in daylight and 0.62 ± 0.05 individuals moved at night. The bed bugs were active according to the light regimen, and distinct activity peaks could be observed during the night (Fig. 3A) when the maximum number of individuals that moved within a 1-min observation period was five out of 10. Overall activity during the human stimulation series was significantly higher than in the control series, in which 0.82 ± 0.07 individuals moved in daylight (Mann–Whitney rank sum test: t = 85 075, P < 0.001) and 1.43 ± 0.13 individuals moved at night (Mann–Whitney rank sum test: t = 74 870, P < 0.001). In the stimulation series, spikes of activity related to human presence could be observed during both the night and day (Fig. 3B). Maximum activity was reflected by the movement of all 10 individuals within a 1-min period of observation. This occurred occasionally at night, either during human stimulation or immediately after the presence of a host in the room.


Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals.

Aak A, Rukke BA, Soleng A, Rosnes MK - Physiol. Entomol. (2014)

Example of typical recordings of Cimex lectularius activity in a mixed population of five males and five females during a 14-day experimental period. (A) Control series without stimuli. (B) Human stimulation series with spikes of activity related to human presence. The grey background indicates night, and the white background indicates lights on.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491371&req=5

fig03: Example of typical recordings of Cimex lectularius activity in a mixed population of five males and five females during a 14-day experimental period. (A) Control series without stimuli. (B) Human stimulation series with spikes of activity related to human presence. The grey background indicates night, and the white background indicates lights on.
Mentions: Overall activity in the control series with no stimulation was low. A mean ± SE of 0.02 ± 0.01 individuals moved during the 10-min observation period per hour in daylight and 0.62 ± 0.05 individuals moved at night. The bed bugs were active according to the light regimen, and distinct activity peaks could be observed during the night (Fig. 3A) when the maximum number of individuals that moved within a 1-min observation period was five out of 10. Overall activity during the human stimulation series was significantly higher than in the control series, in which 0.82 ± 0.07 individuals moved in daylight (Mann–Whitney rank sum test: t = 85 075, P < 0.001) and 1.43 ± 0.13 individuals moved at night (Mann–Whitney rank sum test: t = 74 870, P < 0.001). In the stimulation series, spikes of activity related to human presence could be observed during both the night and day (Fig. 3B). Maximum activity was reflected by the movement of all 10 individuals within a 1-min period of observation. This occurred occasionally at night, either during human stimulation or immediately after the presence of a host in the room.

Bottom Line: After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded.Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night.Peak responses are always highest during the night.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus