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Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals.

Aak A, Rukke BA, Soleng A, Rosnes MK - Physiol. Entomol. (2014)

Bottom Line: After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded.Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night.Peak responses are always highest during the night.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Three-dimensional rendering of the bed bug behavioural assay arena. (A) Area of movement. (B) Harbourages. (C) CO2 release point. (D) Safety barriers (polished plastic wall with brass weights, Plexiglas wall, insect glue-coated overhang and mineral oil-filled duct). (E) White, red and infrared light sources. (F) Vivotech Internet Protocol camera.
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fig01: Three-dimensional rendering of the bed bug behavioural assay arena. (A) Area of movement. (B) Harbourages. (C) CO2 release point. (D) Safety barriers (polished plastic wall with brass weights, Plexiglas wall, insect glue-coated overhang and mineral oil-filled duct). (E) White, red and infrared light sources. (F) Vivotech Internet Protocol camera.

Mentions: The experimental arena (Fig. 1) was placed in a 15-m2 room (3 × 5 m2) without windows. The room was air-conditioned and maintained at a mean ± SE temperature of 22.3 ± 0.1 °C and a relative humidity of 31.7 ± 3.3%. The room was only furnished with a chair and desk, and the walls and ceiling were white or grey to minimize visual cues. All of the light sources were positioned directly above the arena and consisted of a set of eight Plexiglas tubes (diameter 1.2 cm, length 110 cm), each with 96 light-emitting diode (LED) lights positioned 1 cm apart (8 W, Northlight LED; Clas Ohlson, Norway) and four infrared (IR) lamps (Ecoline IR illuminator, TV6700; ELFA, Norway). The eight tubes were placed in a grid fashion and the 768 LED lights were directed toward the arena. The four IR lamps were directed toward the ceiling. This lighting set-up provided shadow-free and even light conditions in the arena to facilitate night and day observations of the bed bugs. Half of the Plexiglas tubes were coated with red plastic foil. Day was simulated by turning all of the light sources on. Night was simulated by turning on only the red tubes and IR lights. The light cycle was maintained at LD 15 : 9 h to keep the conditions similar to those commonly found in a bedroom and synchronized with the rearing facilities. The dark cycle began at 15.00 h and lasted until 00.00 h. A day- and night-vision Internet Protocol camera (Vivotek, FD 8361; Multicom, Norway) was used to record a 1200 × 1600 pixel video with five frames per second. Sharp night videos were obtained using the built-in IR-cut filter and iris technology. vivotek, version 1.00 (Multicom) was used as recording software.


Questing activity in bed bug populations: male and female responses to host signals.

Aak A, Rukke BA, Soleng A, Rosnes MK - Physiol. Entomol. (2014)

Three-dimensional rendering of the bed bug behavioural assay arena. (A) Area of movement. (B) Harbourages. (C) CO2 release point. (D) Safety barriers (polished plastic wall with brass weights, Plexiglas wall, insect glue-coated overhang and mineral oil-filled duct). (E) White, red and infrared light sources. (F) Vivotech Internet Protocol camera.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491371&req=5

fig01: Three-dimensional rendering of the bed bug behavioural assay arena. (A) Area of movement. (B) Harbourages. (C) CO2 release point. (D) Safety barriers (polished plastic wall with brass weights, Plexiglas wall, insect glue-coated overhang and mineral oil-filled duct). (E) White, red and infrared light sources. (F) Vivotech Internet Protocol camera.
Mentions: The experimental arena (Fig. 1) was placed in a 15-m2 room (3 × 5 m2) without windows. The room was air-conditioned and maintained at a mean ± SE temperature of 22.3 ± 0.1 °C and a relative humidity of 31.7 ± 3.3%. The room was only furnished with a chair and desk, and the walls and ceiling were white or grey to minimize visual cues. All of the light sources were positioned directly above the arena and consisted of a set of eight Plexiglas tubes (diameter 1.2 cm, length 110 cm), each with 96 light-emitting diode (LED) lights positioned 1 cm apart (8 W, Northlight LED; Clas Ohlson, Norway) and four infrared (IR) lamps (Ecoline IR illuminator, TV6700; ELFA, Norway). The eight tubes were placed in a grid fashion and the 768 LED lights were directed toward the arena. The four IR lamps were directed toward the ceiling. This lighting set-up provided shadow-free and even light conditions in the arena to facilitate night and day observations of the bed bugs. Half of the Plexiglas tubes were coated with red plastic foil. Day was simulated by turning all of the light sources on. Night was simulated by turning on only the red tubes and IR lights. The light cycle was maintained at LD 15 : 9 h to keep the conditions similar to those commonly found in a bedroom and synchronized with the rearing facilities. The dark cycle began at 15.00 h and lasted until 00.00 h. A day- and night-vision Internet Protocol camera (Vivotek, FD 8361; Multicom, Norway) was used to record a 1200 × 1600 pixel video with five frames per second. Sharp night videos were obtained using the built-in IR-cut filter and iris technology. vivotek, version 1.00 (Multicom) was used as recording software.

Bottom Line: After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded.Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night.Peak responses are always highest during the night.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8-9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus