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Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

Sainju UM, Allen BL, Caesar-TonThat T, Lenssen AW - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty.At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F.At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory, Sidney, MT 59270 USA.

ABSTRACT
Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total precipitation during the growing season (April–August) and throughout the year (January–December) from 1984 to 2013 at the experimental site.
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Fig2: Total precipitation during the growing season (April–August) and throughout the year (January–December) from 1984 to 2013 at the experimental site.

Mentions: Absence of crops during fallow resulted in lower annualized crop grain yield in STW-F than the other treatments during the years when the growing season precipitation was near or similar to the 105-year average (Figure 2). Similar results of lower annualized crop grain yield in crop-fallow than continuous cropping in dryland cropping systems during the years with near normal precipitation in the northern Great Plains have been reported by several researchers (Halvorson et al 2000; Campbell et al 2004; Tarkalson et al. 2006; Sainju 2014). Crop yields were not different among treatments during years with below-normal precipitation, such as in 1984, 1985, 1988, 1995, 2006, and 2007 or above-average precipitation, such as in 1991, 1993, 2003, and 2010. This suggests that increased soil water conservation by fallow during years with below-normal precipitation increased crop yield in STW-F, thereby resulting in similar annual crop yields among all treatments in these years. During years with above-average precipitation, anaerobic condition due to increased soil water content reduced crop yields, resulting in non-significant differences in yields among all treatments.Figure 2


Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

Sainju UM, Allen BL, Caesar-TonThat T, Lenssen AW - Springerplus (2015)

Total precipitation during the growing season (April–August) and throughout the year (January–December) from 1984 to 2013 at the experimental site.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491341&req=5

Fig2: Total precipitation during the growing season (April–August) and throughout the year (January–December) from 1984 to 2013 at the experimental site.
Mentions: Absence of crops during fallow resulted in lower annualized crop grain yield in STW-F than the other treatments during the years when the growing season precipitation was near or similar to the 105-year average (Figure 2). Similar results of lower annualized crop grain yield in crop-fallow than continuous cropping in dryland cropping systems during the years with near normal precipitation in the northern Great Plains have been reported by several researchers (Halvorson et al 2000; Campbell et al 2004; Tarkalson et al. 2006; Sainju 2014). Crop yields were not different among treatments during years with below-normal precipitation, such as in 1984, 1985, 1988, 1995, 2006, and 2007 or above-average precipitation, such as in 1991, 1993, 2003, and 2010. This suggests that increased soil water conservation by fallow during years with below-normal precipitation increased crop yield in STW-F, thereby resulting in similar annual crop yields among all treatments in these years. During years with above-average precipitation, anaerobic condition due to increased soil water content reduced crop yields, resulting in non-significant differences in yields among all treatments.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty.At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F.At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory, Sidney, MT 59270 USA.

ABSTRACT
Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus