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What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey.

Fledderjohann J, Doyle P, Campbell O, Ebrahim S, Basu S, Stuckler D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h.Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. jasmine.fledderjohann@sociology.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead.

Methods: We analysed children's beverage consumption using representative data from India's National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Consumption was based on mothers' reports (n = 22,668) for children aged 6-59 months (n = 30,656).

Results: About 10 % of Indian children had no water in the last 24 h, corresponding to 12,700,000 children nationally, (95 % CI: 12,260,000 to 13,200,000). Among children who received no water, 23 % received breast or fresh milk and 24 % consumed formula, "other liquid", juice, or two or more beverages. Children over 2 were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years. Those in the lowest two wealth quintiles were 16 % less likely to have received water (OR = 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.74 to 0.96). Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.

Conclusions: About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h. Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

No MeSH data available.


Household water source by child’s water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
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Fig3: Household water source by child’s water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3

Mentions: We anticipated that children living in households with unclean water and in more deprived settings would be less likely to receive water. We examined water consumption first by the four category measure of household water source, and second by the dichotomous WHO improved water source classification. Figure 3 shows a significant association between the four category measure of household water source and children’s water consumption (χ2 = 99.32; p < 0.001). The majority of children who did not consume any water in the last 24 h lived in households that used well-water as the main water supply (54 %). Higher risks were also seen in children whose households used river, spring, lake, or rainwater (11.2 % reported no water versus 8.74 % who reported having water). Conversely, a higher proportion of children who did consume water rely on piped, tanker, or bottled water (28.2 %) or a public tap (15.3 %) as compared to those who had no water (20.8 % and 13.7 % respectively). However, when we tested WHO/UNICEF coding of improved water sources, a chi-squared test (χ2 = 4.34; p = 0.04) did not identify discernible differences in children’s water consumption patterns (see Additional files 5 and 6).Fig. 3


What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey.

Fledderjohann J, Doyle P, Campbell O, Ebrahim S, Basu S, Stuckler D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Household water source by child’s water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491259&req=5

Fig3: Household water source by child’s water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
Mentions: We anticipated that children living in households with unclean water and in more deprived settings would be less likely to receive water. We examined water consumption first by the four category measure of household water source, and second by the dichotomous WHO improved water source classification. Figure 3 shows a significant association between the four category measure of household water source and children’s water consumption (χ2 = 99.32; p < 0.001). The majority of children who did not consume any water in the last 24 h lived in households that used well-water as the main water supply (54 %). Higher risks were also seen in children whose households used river, spring, lake, or rainwater (11.2 % reported no water versus 8.74 % who reported having water). Conversely, a higher proportion of children who did consume water rely on piped, tanker, or bottled water (28.2 %) or a public tap (15.3 %) as compared to those who had no water (20.8 % and 13.7 % respectively). However, when we tested WHO/UNICEF coding of improved water sources, a chi-squared test (χ2 = 4.34; p = 0.04) did not identify discernible differences in children’s water consumption patterns (see Additional files 5 and 6).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h.Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. jasmine.fledderjohann@sociology.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead.

Methods: We analysed children's beverage consumption using representative data from India's National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Consumption was based on mothers' reports (n = 22,668) for children aged 6-59 months (n = 30,656).

Results: About 10 % of Indian children had no water in the last 24 h, corresponding to 12,700,000 children nationally, (95 % CI: 12,260,000 to 13,200,000). Among children who received no water, 23 % received breast or fresh milk and 24 % consumed formula, "other liquid", juice, or two or more beverages. Children over 2 were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years. Those in the lowest two wealth quintiles were 16 % less likely to have received water (OR = 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.74 to 0.96). Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.

Conclusions: About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h. Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

No MeSH data available.