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What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey.

Fledderjohann J, Doyle P, Campbell O, Ebrahim S, Basu S, Stuckler D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h.Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. jasmine.fledderjohann@sociology.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead.

Methods: We analysed children's beverage consumption using representative data from India's National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Consumption was based on mothers' reports (n = 22,668) for children aged 6-59 months (n = 30,656).

Results: About 10 % of Indian children had no water in the last 24 h, corresponding to 12,700,000 children nationally, (95 % CI: 12,260,000 to 13,200,000). Among children who received no water, 23 % received breast or fresh milk and 24 % consumed formula, "other liquid", juice, or two or more beverages. Children over 2 were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years. Those in the lowest two wealth quintiles were 16 % less likely to have received water (OR = 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.74 to 0.96). Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.

Conclusions: About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h. Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

No MeSH data available.


Beverage consumption among children whose mothers reported no water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
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Fig2: Beverage consumption among children whose mothers reported no water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3

Mentions: We next asked, what do children drink instead of water? Figure 2 shows a pie chart of beverage consumption for the sub-sample of children who did not receive water in the past 24 h (n = 2,865). Among those children aged 6–59 months who received no water according to mothers’ reports, about half also received no other beverages at all (52.8 %), while nearly another quarter (23.0 %) received breast milk or fresh milk only. The remaining 24 % consumed either formula, “other liquid,” juice, or two or more beverages in the last 24 h. Less than 4 % of children who received no water had both fresh milk and breast milk in the last 24 h. 2.55 % received tea or coffee only, while just under 5 % received a combination of either tea/coffee and fresh milk (2.44 %) or tea/coffee and breast milk (2.37 %). Children over 2 years of age were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years (Additional file 3). For the sake of comparison, beverage consumption by age is also provided in Additional file 4 for children who did receive water in the last 24 h. The majority of children who received water additionally consumed some combination of (breast) milk, tea, and coffee.Fig. 2


What do Indian children drink when they do not receive water? Statistical analysis of water and alternative beverage consumption from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey.

Fledderjohann J, Doyle P, Campbell O, Ebrahim S, Basu S, Stuckler D - BMC Public Health (2015)

Beverage consumption among children whose mothers reported no water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491259&req=5

Fig2: Beverage consumption among children whose mothers reported no water consumption in the last 24 h, living children aged 6–59 months, NFHS-3
Mentions: We next asked, what do children drink instead of water? Figure 2 shows a pie chart of beverage consumption for the sub-sample of children who did not receive water in the past 24 h (n = 2,865). Among those children aged 6–59 months who received no water according to mothers’ reports, about half also received no other beverages at all (52.8 %), while nearly another quarter (23.0 %) received breast milk or fresh milk only. The remaining 24 % consumed either formula, “other liquid,” juice, or two or more beverages in the last 24 h. Less than 4 % of children who received no water had both fresh milk and breast milk in the last 24 h. 2.55 % received tea or coffee only, while just under 5 % received a combination of either tea/coffee and fresh milk (2.44 %) or tea/coffee and breast milk (2.37 %). Children over 2 years of age were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years (Additional file 3). For the sake of comparison, beverage consumption by age is also provided in Additional file 4 for children who did receive water in the last 24 h. The majority of children who received water additionally consumed some combination of (breast) milk, tea, and coffee.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h.Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. jasmine.fledderjohann@sociology.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 1.2 billion people lack access to clean water. However, little is known about what children drink when there is no clean water. We investigated the prevalence of receiving no water and what Indian children drink instead.

Methods: We analysed children's beverage consumption using representative data from India's National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). Consumption was based on mothers' reports (n = 22,668) for children aged 6-59 months (n = 30,656).

Results: About 10 % of Indian children had no water in the last 24 h, corresponding to 12,700,000 children nationally, (95 % CI: 12,260,000 to 13,200,000). Among children who received no water, 23 % received breast or fresh milk and 24 % consumed formula, "other liquid", juice, or two or more beverages. Children over 2 were more likely to consume non-milk beverages, including tea, coffee, and juice than those under 2 years. Those in the lowest two wealth quintiles were 16 % less likely to have received water (OR = 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.74 to 0.96). Compared to those living in households with bottled, piped, or tanker water, children were significantly less likely to receive water in households using well water (OR = 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.64 to 0.89) or river, spring, or rain water (OR =0.70; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.92) in the last 24 h.

Conclusions: About 13 million Indian children aged 6-59 months received no water in the last 24 h. Further research is needed to assess the risks potentially arising from insufficient water, caffeinated beverages, and high sugar drinks at early stages of life.

No MeSH data available.