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The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis.

Zhou L, Liu F, Wang X, Ouyang G - Cell Biosci (2015)

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by either inhibiting protein translation or degrading target mRNAs.Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality.Therefore, the identification of metastasis-related miRNAs and a better understanding of the complex functions of miRNAs in tumor metastasis will provide potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for clinical application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361004 China ; Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029 China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by either inhibiting protein translation or degrading target mRNAs. The differential expression profiles of miRNAs in different types of cancers and in the multi-step process of tumor progression indicate that miRNAs are involved in tumor onset, growth and progression. Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Current evidence demonstrates that aberrant miRNA expression promotes or inhibits tumor metastasis by modulating the expression of numerous target genes. Therefore, the identification of metastasis-related miRNAs and a better understanding of the complex functions of miRNAs in tumor metastasis will provide potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for clinical application. Here, we review the functions of miRNAs in the control of multiple steps of tumor metastasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis. Tumor metastasis is a complex process that is composed of multiple steps. To disseminate to distant sites, tumor cells detach from their primary sites by local migration, invasion and penetration of the stromal cell layers. For blood vessel-borne metastasis, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) intravasate into blood vessels and survive in the circulation. After they arrive at distant organ sites, DTCs must extravasate from the blood and adapt to the new tissue microenvironments, where only a few DTCs form micrometastases. Finally, only a small subset of micrometastases eventually becomes detectable macrometastases. During this metastatic cascade, miRNAs can regulate the expression of multiple target genes and can modulate multiple tumor cell phenotypes, such as motility, invasion, intravasation, resistance to anoikis, extravasation and metastatic colonization as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell stemness, dormancy and the tumor microenvironment. miRNAs may act as positive regulators (purple) or negative regulators (blue) in the regulation of tumor metastasis. ECM, extracellular matrix; CSC, cancer stem cell
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Fig1: The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis. Tumor metastasis is a complex process that is composed of multiple steps. To disseminate to distant sites, tumor cells detach from their primary sites by local migration, invasion and penetration of the stromal cell layers. For blood vessel-borne metastasis, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) intravasate into blood vessels and survive in the circulation. After they arrive at distant organ sites, DTCs must extravasate from the blood and adapt to the new tissue microenvironments, where only a few DTCs form micrometastases. Finally, only a small subset of micrometastases eventually becomes detectable macrometastases. During this metastatic cascade, miRNAs can regulate the expression of multiple target genes and can modulate multiple tumor cell phenotypes, such as motility, invasion, intravasation, resistance to anoikis, extravasation and metastatic colonization as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell stemness, dormancy and the tumor microenvironment. miRNAs may act as positive regulators (purple) or negative regulators (blue) in the regulation of tumor metastasis. ECM, extracellular matrix; CSC, cancer stem cell

Mentions: Current evidence has demonstrated that various miRNAs play critical roles in the coordination of tumor cell invasion, intravasation, survival, extravasation and/or colonization, as well as EMT, stemness, dormancy and the metastatic microenvironment (Fig. 1) (Table 1). Although metastasis-related miRNAs have opened a new field of research with respect to tumor metastasis, research on the functions and mechanisms of miRNAs in tumor metastasis has only recently begun.Fig. 1


The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis.

Zhou L, Liu F, Wang X, Ouyang G - Cell Biosci (2015)

The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis. Tumor metastasis is a complex process that is composed of multiple steps. To disseminate to distant sites, tumor cells detach from their primary sites by local migration, invasion and penetration of the stromal cell layers. For blood vessel-borne metastasis, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) intravasate into blood vessels and survive in the circulation. After they arrive at distant organ sites, DTCs must extravasate from the blood and adapt to the new tissue microenvironments, where only a few DTCs form micrometastases. Finally, only a small subset of micrometastases eventually becomes detectable macrometastases. During this metastatic cascade, miRNAs can regulate the expression of multiple target genes and can modulate multiple tumor cell phenotypes, such as motility, invasion, intravasation, resistance to anoikis, extravasation and metastatic colonization as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell stemness, dormancy and the tumor microenvironment. miRNAs may act as positive regulators (purple) or negative regulators (blue) in the regulation of tumor metastasis. ECM, extracellular matrix; CSC, cancer stem cell
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491246&req=5

Fig1: The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis. Tumor metastasis is a complex process that is composed of multiple steps. To disseminate to distant sites, tumor cells detach from their primary sites by local migration, invasion and penetration of the stromal cell layers. For blood vessel-borne metastasis, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) intravasate into blood vessels and survive in the circulation. After they arrive at distant organ sites, DTCs must extravasate from the blood and adapt to the new tissue microenvironments, where only a few DTCs form micrometastases. Finally, only a small subset of micrometastases eventually becomes detectable macrometastases. During this metastatic cascade, miRNAs can regulate the expression of multiple target genes and can modulate multiple tumor cell phenotypes, such as motility, invasion, intravasation, resistance to anoikis, extravasation and metastatic colonization as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell stemness, dormancy and the tumor microenvironment. miRNAs may act as positive regulators (purple) or negative regulators (blue) in the regulation of tumor metastasis. ECM, extracellular matrix; CSC, cancer stem cell
Mentions: Current evidence has demonstrated that various miRNAs play critical roles in the coordination of tumor cell invasion, intravasation, survival, extravasation and/or colonization, as well as EMT, stemness, dormancy and the metastatic microenvironment (Fig. 1) (Table 1). Although metastasis-related miRNAs have opened a new field of research with respect to tumor metastasis, research on the functions and mechanisms of miRNAs in tumor metastasis has only recently begun.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by either inhibiting protein translation or degrading target mRNAs.Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality.Therefore, the identification of metastasis-related miRNAs and a better understanding of the complex functions of miRNAs in tumor metastasis will provide potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for clinical application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361004 China ; Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029 China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by either inhibiting protein translation or degrading target mRNAs. The differential expression profiles of miRNAs in different types of cancers and in the multi-step process of tumor progression indicate that miRNAs are involved in tumor onset, growth and progression. Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Current evidence demonstrates that aberrant miRNA expression promotes or inhibits tumor metastasis by modulating the expression of numerous target genes. Therefore, the identification of metastasis-related miRNAs and a better understanding of the complex functions of miRNAs in tumor metastasis will provide potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for clinical application. Here, we review the functions of miRNAs in the control of multiple steps of tumor metastasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus