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Is a threshold-based model a superior method to the relative percent concept for establishing individual exercise intensity? a randomized controlled trial.

Wolpern AE, Burgos DJ, Janot JM, Dalleck LC - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2015)

Bottom Line: Thirty-six men and women completed the study.After 12weeks, VO2max increased significantly (p < 0.05 vs. controls) in both HRR (1.76 ± 1.93 mL/kg/min) and ACE-3ZM (3.93 ± 0.96 mL/kg/min) groups.In the HRR group 41.7 % (5/12) of individuals experienced a favorable change in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) and were categorized as responders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, 600 N. Adams St., Gunnison, CO 81230 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exercise intensity is arguably the most critical component of the exercise prescription model. It has been suggested that a threshold based model for establishing exercise intensity might better identify the lowest effective training stimulus for all individuals with varying fitness levels; however, experimental evidence is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two exercise training programs for improving cardiorespiratory fitness: threshold based model vs. relative percent concept (i.e., % heart rate reserve - HRR).

Methods: Apparently healthy, but sedentary men and women (n = 42) were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two exercise training groups. Exercise training was performed 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 12weeks according to one of two exercise intensity regimens: 1) a relative percent method was used in which intensity was prescribed according to percentages of heart rate reserve (HRR group), or 2) a threshold based method (ACE-3ZM) was used in which intensity was prescribed according to the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and second ventilatory threshold (VT2).

Results: Thirty-six men and women completed the study. After 12weeks, VO2max increased significantly (p < 0.05 vs. controls) in both HRR (1.76 ± 1.93 mL/kg/min) and ACE-3ZM (3.93 ± 0.96 mL/kg/min) groups. Repeated measures ANOVA identified a significant interaction between exercise intensity method and change in VO2max values (F = 9.06, p < 0.05) indicating that VO2max responded differently to the method of exercise intensity prescription. In the HRR group 41.7 % (5/12) of individuals experienced a favorable change in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) and were categorized as responders. Alternatively, exercise training in the ACE-3ZM group elicited a positive improvement in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) in 100 % (12/12) of the individuals.

Conclusions: A threshold based exercise intensity prescription: 1). elicited significantly (p < 0.05) greater improvements in VO2max, and 2). attenuated the individual variation in VO2max training responses when compared to relative percent exercise training. These novel findings are encouraging and provide important preliminary data for the design of individualized exercise prescriptions that will enhance training efficacy and limit training unresponsiveness.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ID NCT02351713 Registered 30 January 2015.

No MeSH data available.


Flow chart of experimental procedures and exercise prescription for each of the two exercise training groups. HR, heart rate; HRR, heart rate reserve; VT1, first ventilatory threshold; VT2, second ventilatory threshold
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Fig1: Flow chart of experimental procedures and exercise prescription for each of the two exercise training groups. HR, heart rate; HRR, heart rate reserve; VT1, first ventilatory threshold; VT2, second ventilatory threshold

Mentions: After the completion of baseline testing, participants were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two exercise training groups according to a computer generated sequence of random numbers that was stratified by sex (Fig. 1). This was a double-blind research design in that participants were unaware of the group to which they had been assigned. Likewise, the researchers specifically responsible for testing and supervision of exercise sessions were unaware of the group to which participants had been allocated. Participants randomized to the exercise training groups performed 12weeks of exercise training according to one of two exercise intensity regimens: 1) a relative percent method was used in which intensity was prescribed according to percentages of HRR (HRR group), or 2) a threshold-based method (ACE-3ZM) was used in which intensity was prescribed according to VT1 and VT2 as recommended by ACE in its three-zone model [11]. The exercise prescription details for each training group over the course of the 12weeks training period is presented in Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Is a threshold-based model a superior method to the relative percent concept for establishing individual exercise intensity? a randomized controlled trial.

Wolpern AE, Burgos DJ, Janot JM, Dalleck LC - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2015)

Flow chart of experimental procedures and exercise prescription for each of the two exercise training groups. HR, heart rate; HRR, heart rate reserve; VT1, first ventilatory threshold; VT2, second ventilatory threshold
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491229&req=5

Fig1: Flow chart of experimental procedures and exercise prescription for each of the two exercise training groups. HR, heart rate; HRR, heart rate reserve; VT1, first ventilatory threshold; VT2, second ventilatory threshold
Mentions: After the completion of baseline testing, participants were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two exercise training groups according to a computer generated sequence of random numbers that was stratified by sex (Fig. 1). This was a double-blind research design in that participants were unaware of the group to which they had been assigned. Likewise, the researchers specifically responsible for testing and supervision of exercise sessions were unaware of the group to which participants had been allocated. Participants randomized to the exercise training groups performed 12weeks of exercise training according to one of two exercise intensity regimens: 1) a relative percent method was used in which intensity was prescribed according to percentages of HRR (HRR group), or 2) a threshold-based method (ACE-3ZM) was used in which intensity was prescribed according to VT1 and VT2 as recommended by ACE in its three-zone model [11]. The exercise prescription details for each training group over the course of the 12weeks training period is presented in Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Thirty-six men and women completed the study.After 12weeks, VO2max increased significantly (p < 0.05 vs. controls) in both HRR (1.76 ± 1.93 mL/kg/min) and ACE-3ZM (3.93 ± 0.96 mL/kg/min) groups.In the HRR group 41.7 % (5/12) of individuals experienced a favorable change in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) and were categorized as responders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, 600 N. Adams St., Gunnison, CO 81230 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Exercise intensity is arguably the most critical component of the exercise prescription model. It has been suggested that a threshold based model for establishing exercise intensity might better identify the lowest effective training stimulus for all individuals with varying fitness levels; however, experimental evidence is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two exercise training programs for improving cardiorespiratory fitness: threshold based model vs. relative percent concept (i.e., % heart rate reserve - HRR).

Methods: Apparently healthy, but sedentary men and women (n = 42) were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two exercise training groups. Exercise training was performed 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 12weeks according to one of two exercise intensity regimens: 1) a relative percent method was used in which intensity was prescribed according to percentages of heart rate reserve (HRR group), or 2) a threshold based method (ACE-3ZM) was used in which intensity was prescribed according to the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and second ventilatory threshold (VT2).

Results: Thirty-six men and women completed the study. After 12weeks, VO2max increased significantly (p < 0.05 vs. controls) in both HRR (1.76 ± 1.93 mL/kg/min) and ACE-3ZM (3.93 ± 0.96 mL/kg/min) groups. Repeated measures ANOVA identified a significant interaction between exercise intensity method and change in VO2max values (F = 9.06, p < 0.05) indicating that VO2max responded differently to the method of exercise intensity prescription. In the HRR group 41.7 % (5/12) of individuals experienced a favorable change in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) and were categorized as responders. Alternatively, exercise training in the ACE-3ZM group elicited a positive improvement in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) in 100 % (12/12) of the individuals.

Conclusions: A threshold based exercise intensity prescription: 1). elicited significantly (p < 0.05) greater improvements in VO2max, and 2). attenuated the individual variation in VO2max training responses when compared to relative percent exercise training. These novel findings are encouraging and provide important preliminary data for the design of individualized exercise prescriptions that will enhance training efficacy and limit training unresponsiveness.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ID NCT02351713 Registered 30 January 2015.

No MeSH data available.