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Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Surface adhesion in climbing animals and cells. a Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) carrying more than 100 times its body weight upside-down on a smooth surface (photo: Thomas Endlein). b Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) attached by a single toe to a tilted glass surface. Reproduced from [130] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. c Lateral view of adhesive setae in a longhorn beetle (Clytus arietis) showing non-adhesive orientation of seta tips and anti-adhesive corrugations on the dorsal side. Reproduced from [131] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. d Weaver ant adhesive pad in the retracted (top) and the extended position (bottom). Reproduced from [114]. e Adherent cell on a deformable substrate. Inward forces are transmitted via the cytoskeleton and the focal adhesions to the substrate. Adapted from [75]. f Rapid increase in adhesive contact area in stick insects (Carausius morosus) in response to a rapid displacement of the substrate. Adapted from [121]. g B16 melanoma cell (expressing fluorescent marker for focal adhesions) before and 5 minutes after displacement of cell body by a microneedle (direction shown by arrow), showing growth of peripheral focal contacts in the region opposite the cell body (enlarged in insets), stimulated by tension. Reproduced from [123] with permission from the Journal of Cell Science
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Fig3: Surface adhesion in climbing animals and cells. a Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) carrying more than 100 times its body weight upside-down on a smooth surface (photo: Thomas Endlein). b Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) attached by a single toe to a tilted glass surface. Reproduced from [130] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. c Lateral view of adhesive setae in a longhorn beetle (Clytus arietis) showing non-adhesive orientation of seta tips and anti-adhesive corrugations on the dorsal side. Reproduced from [131] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. d Weaver ant adhesive pad in the retracted (top) and the extended position (bottom). Reproduced from [114]. e Adherent cell on a deformable substrate. Inward forces are transmitted via the cytoskeleton and the focal adhesions to the substrate. Adapted from [75]. f Rapid increase in adhesive contact area in stick insects (Carausius morosus) in response to a rapid displacement of the substrate. Adapted from [121]. g B16 melanoma cell (expressing fluorescent marker for focal adhesions) before and 5 minutes after displacement of cell body by a microneedle (direction shown by arrow), showing growth of peripheral focal contacts in the region opposite the cell body (enlarged in insets), stimulated by tension. Reproduced from [123] with permission from the Journal of Cell Science

Mentions: Given that both cells and whole animals adhere by van der Waals forces and probably electrostatic forces, one might expect their adhesive stresses to be of similar magnitude. Let us briefly consider the consequences if this were indeed the case: depending on the geometry, adhesion forces scale with the length or the area of adhesive contacts [88]. For example, while the pull-off force for a suction cup is proportional to its area, the force needed to peel off a piece of Scotch tape depends on its width. For isometric organisms, weight increases with the cube of linear dimensions, and therefore faster than area- or length-specific adhesion. As a consequence, adhesion per body weight is expected to decrease for larger animals. Despite their relatively large body size, however, geckos can easily hang from a single toe, and weaver ants can carry more than 100 times their own body weight whilst walking upside down on a smooth surface (Fig. 3a, b). Clearly, these animals use only a small fraction of their body surface area (that is, the adhesive organs on their feet) for attachment, and at least the gecko does not seem to employ any specific adhesion molecules to achieve high levels of forces.Fig. 3.


Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Surface adhesion in climbing animals and cells. a Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) carrying more than 100 times its body weight upside-down on a smooth surface (photo: Thomas Endlein). b Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) attached by a single toe to a tilted glass surface. Reproduced from [130] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. c Lateral view of adhesive setae in a longhorn beetle (Clytus arietis) showing non-adhesive orientation of seta tips and anti-adhesive corrugations on the dorsal side. Reproduced from [131] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. d Weaver ant adhesive pad in the retracted (top) and the extended position (bottom). Reproduced from [114]. e Adherent cell on a deformable substrate. Inward forces are transmitted via the cytoskeleton and the focal adhesions to the substrate. Adapted from [75]. f Rapid increase in adhesive contact area in stick insects (Carausius morosus) in response to a rapid displacement of the substrate. Adapted from [121]. g B16 melanoma cell (expressing fluorescent marker for focal adhesions) before and 5 minutes after displacement of cell body by a microneedle (direction shown by arrow), showing growth of peripheral focal contacts in the region opposite the cell body (enlarged in insets), stimulated by tension. Reproduced from [123] with permission from the Journal of Cell Science
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491211&req=5

Fig3: Surface adhesion in climbing animals and cells. a Weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) carrying more than 100 times its body weight upside-down on a smooth surface (photo: Thomas Endlein). b Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) attached by a single toe to a tilted glass surface. Reproduced from [130] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. c Lateral view of adhesive setae in a longhorn beetle (Clytus arietis) showing non-adhesive orientation of seta tips and anti-adhesive corrugations on the dorsal side. Reproduced from [131] with permission from the Journal of Experimental Biology. d Weaver ant adhesive pad in the retracted (top) and the extended position (bottom). Reproduced from [114]. e Adherent cell on a deformable substrate. Inward forces are transmitted via the cytoskeleton and the focal adhesions to the substrate. Adapted from [75]. f Rapid increase in adhesive contact area in stick insects (Carausius morosus) in response to a rapid displacement of the substrate. Adapted from [121]. g B16 melanoma cell (expressing fluorescent marker for focal adhesions) before and 5 minutes after displacement of cell body by a microneedle (direction shown by arrow), showing growth of peripheral focal contacts in the region opposite the cell body (enlarged in insets), stimulated by tension. Reproduced from [123] with permission from the Journal of Cell Science
Mentions: Given that both cells and whole animals adhere by van der Waals forces and probably electrostatic forces, one might expect their adhesive stresses to be of similar magnitude. Let us briefly consider the consequences if this were indeed the case: depending on the geometry, adhesion forces scale with the length or the area of adhesive contacts [88]. For example, while the pull-off force for a suction cup is proportional to its area, the force needed to peel off a piece of Scotch tape depends on its width. For isometric organisms, weight increases with the cube of linear dimensions, and therefore faster than area- or length-specific adhesion. As a consequence, adhesion per body weight is expected to decrease for larger animals. Despite their relatively large body size, however, geckos can easily hang from a single toe, and weaver ants can carry more than 100 times their own body weight whilst walking upside down on a smooth surface (Fig. 3a, b). Clearly, these animals use only a small fraction of their body surface area (that is, the adhesive organs on their feet) for attachment, and at least the gecko does not seem to employ any specific adhesion molecules to achieve high levels of forces.Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus