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Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Acto-myosin stress fibers are key mechanical regulators in cell-matrix mechanosensing. a Sketch of a cell adhering to a substrate of elasticity E. Actomyosin stress fibers (magnified in the inset zoom) are connected via focal adhesions and extracellular matrix proteins to the micro-environment and generate contractile forces that enable the cell to sense the mechanical properties of the substrate. The cytoskeleton is also connected to the nuclear lamina, thus providing a direct mechanical route to gene regulation. Adapted from [67] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry. b Non-monotonic dependence of stress fiber structure quantified by an order parameter S of hMSCs grown on substrates of different elasticity E can be used as early morphological marker for mechano-guided differentiation. Scale bar is 50 μm. Adapted from [70] with permission from the Nature Publishing Group
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Fig2: Acto-myosin stress fibers are key mechanical regulators in cell-matrix mechanosensing. a Sketch of a cell adhering to a substrate of elasticity E. Actomyosin stress fibers (magnified in the inset zoom) are connected via focal adhesions and extracellular matrix proteins to the micro-environment and generate contractile forces that enable the cell to sense the mechanical properties of the substrate. The cytoskeleton is also connected to the nuclear lamina, thus providing a direct mechanical route to gene regulation. Adapted from [67] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry. b Non-monotonic dependence of stress fiber structure quantified by an order parameter S of hMSCs grown on substrates of different elasticity E can be used as early morphological marker for mechano-guided differentiation. Scale bar is 50 μm. Adapted from [70] with permission from the Nature Publishing Group

Mentions: To explain such a mechanical pathway, it is essential to understand how forces can be transmitted to the nucleus. Actomyosin stress fibers are key players in cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions as they anchor at focal adhesion sites and create cellular contractility (Fig. 2a) [66, 67]. Because they also connect directly to the nuclear lamina [68, 69], stress fibers are able to pass on stress and strain and deform the nucleus [65]. A closer look at the actomyosin filaments in hMSCs revealed that quantification of their structure and organization by means of an order parameter S showed significant differences with respect to the substrate elasticity at an early stage of mechano-induced differentiation (24 hours) [70, 71]. On soft (1 kPa) and rigid (34 kPa) substrates the stress fibers are organized more isotropically (S = 0.08 and 0.58, respectively), while on 11 kPa substrates (an intermediate elasticity and matching the in vivo stiffness of relaxed muscle) the actomyosin bundles were parallel aligned and showed high anisotropy as indicated by an order parameter S = 0.63 (Fig. 2b). This early morphological marker can be understood in terms of a collective mechanosensor and is experimentally observable long before lineage-specific genes are upregulated, a process that usually takes several days [72]. Another recent study used this quantitative order parameter analysis to determine the effect of substrate elasticity on differentiating myoblasts [73], indicating that mechanical stimuli and respective change of cytoskeleton structure do play a role in differentiation of more than one cell type.Fig. 2.


Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Acto-myosin stress fibers are key mechanical regulators in cell-matrix mechanosensing. a Sketch of a cell adhering to a substrate of elasticity E. Actomyosin stress fibers (magnified in the inset zoom) are connected via focal adhesions and extracellular matrix proteins to the micro-environment and generate contractile forces that enable the cell to sense the mechanical properties of the substrate. The cytoskeleton is also connected to the nuclear lamina, thus providing a direct mechanical route to gene regulation. Adapted from [67] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry. b Non-monotonic dependence of stress fiber structure quantified by an order parameter S of hMSCs grown on substrates of different elasticity E can be used as early morphological marker for mechano-guided differentiation. Scale bar is 50 μm. Adapted from [70] with permission from the Nature Publishing Group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491211&req=5

Fig2: Acto-myosin stress fibers are key mechanical regulators in cell-matrix mechanosensing. a Sketch of a cell adhering to a substrate of elasticity E. Actomyosin stress fibers (magnified in the inset zoom) are connected via focal adhesions and extracellular matrix proteins to the micro-environment and generate contractile forces that enable the cell to sense the mechanical properties of the substrate. The cytoskeleton is also connected to the nuclear lamina, thus providing a direct mechanical route to gene regulation. Adapted from [67] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry. b Non-monotonic dependence of stress fiber structure quantified by an order parameter S of hMSCs grown on substrates of different elasticity E can be used as early morphological marker for mechano-guided differentiation. Scale bar is 50 μm. Adapted from [70] with permission from the Nature Publishing Group
Mentions: To explain such a mechanical pathway, it is essential to understand how forces can be transmitted to the nucleus. Actomyosin stress fibers are key players in cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions as they anchor at focal adhesion sites and create cellular contractility (Fig. 2a) [66, 67]. Because they also connect directly to the nuclear lamina [68, 69], stress fibers are able to pass on stress and strain and deform the nucleus [65]. A closer look at the actomyosin filaments in hMSCs revealed that quantification of their structure and organization by means of an order parameter S showed significant differences with respect to the substrate elasticity at an early stage of mechano-induced differentiation (24 hours) [70, 71]. On soft (1 kPa) and rigid (34 kPa) substrates the stress fibers are organized more isotropically (S = 0.08 and 0.58, respectively), while on 11 kPa substrates (an intermediate elasticity and matching the in vivo stiffness of relaxed muscle) the actomyosin bundles were parallel aligned and showed high anisotropy as indicated by an order parameter S = 0.63 (Fig. 2b). This early morphological marker can be understood in terms of a collective mechanosensor and is experimentally observable long before lineage-specific genes are upregulated, a process that usually takes several days [72]. Another recent study used this quantitative order parameter analysis to determine the effect of substrate elasticity on differentiating myoblasts [73], indicating that mechanical stimuli and respective change of cytoskeleton structure do play a role in differentiation of more than one cell type.Fig. 2.

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus