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Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hooke's law for linear elastic engineering materials compared to complex material models for biological specimens. The ratio between applied stress σ (force/area) and resulting strain ε (deformation) is described by the elastic modulus E for homogenous, isotropic, linear elastic materials. For biological specimens, the material model assumptions are more difficult and depend on the specific system. Proteins, cells and tissues consist of multiple heterogeneous, anisotropic building blocks of various length scales that are hierarchically organized and exhibit rate-dependent, non-linear, viscoelastic stress–strain responses. Comparison of mechanical properties across systems and among different testing methods requires careful assessment of testing conditions and calibration schemes, which are not yet standardized
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Fig1: Hooke's law for linear elastic engineering materials compared to complex material models for biological specimens. The ratio between applied stress σ (force/area) and resulting strain ε (deformation) is described by the elastic modulus E for homogenous, isotropic, linear elastic materials. For biological specimens, the material model assumptions are more difficult and depend on the specific system. Proteins, cells and tissues consist of multiple heterogeneous, anisotropic building blocks of various length scales that are hierarchically organized and exhibit rate-dependent, non-linear, viscoelastic stress–strain responses. Comparison of mechanical properties across systems and among different testing methods requires careful assessment of testing conditions and calibration schemes, which are not yet standardized

Mentions: Cells within tissues are subjected to exogenous, physiological forces, including fluid shear stress or mechanical load, while at the same time cells exert acto-myosin-generated contractile forces to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to neighboring cells via cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions [44]. Hooke’s Law and Newton’s Laws of equilibrium readily relate the linear extension of a ‘spring’ to forces, and using appropriate material models we can further relate forces to stresses (force/area). All mechanical measurements revolve around exquisitely precise displacement measurements, yet these displacement data must be converted to estimate force via a set of material deformation models [45]. By necessity, these models are oversimplified because proteins, cells, and tissues present highly anisotropic, heterogeneous, nonlinear mechanical properties that vary widely and depend on the composition, architecture, and environmental conditions, as well as the direction, nature and rate of load application [46]. But do not despair, for while ‘essentially, all models are wrong, some are useful’ [47]. Although we need a material model to estimate forces and stresses, we can directly observe substrate displacements and calculate strains (changes in length/original length) or three-dimensional deformation fields (Fig. 1). To unravel how cells convert these mechanical cues into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction), we must also consider how the structures of proteins and protein networks are altered upon mechanical load. The cellular microenvironment consists of protein networks of varying biochemical and physical properties, including matrix composition, dimensionality and stiffness, all of which have been shown to co-regulate cell function, differentiation, tissue homeostasis and organ development [48, 49].Fig. 1.


Mechanotransduction: use the force(s).

Paluch EK, Nelson CM, Biais N, Fabry B, Moeller J, Pruitt BL, Wollnik C, Kudryasheva G, Rehfeldt F, Federle W - BMC Biol. (2015)

Hooke's law for linear elastic engineering materials compared to complex material models for biological specimens. The ratio between applied stress σ (force/area) and resulting strain ε (deformation) is described by the elastic modulus E for homogenous, isotropic, linear elastic materials. For biological specimens, the material model assumptions are more difficult and depend on the specific system. Proteins, cells and tissues consist of multiple heterogeneous, anisotropic building blocks of various length scales that are hierarchically organized and exhibit rate-dependent, non-linear, viscoelastic stress–strain responses. Comparison of mechanical properties across systems and among different testing methods requires careful assessment of testing conditions and calibration schemes, which are not yet standardized
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491211&req=5

Fig1: Hooke's law for linear elastic engineering materials compared to complex material models for biological specimens. The ratio between applied stress σ (force/area) and resulting strain ε (deformation) is described by the elastic modulus E for homogenous, isotropic, linear elastic materials. For biological specimens, the material model assumptions are more difficult and depend on the specific system. Proteins, cells and tissues consist of multiple heterogeneous, anisotropic building blocks of various length scales that are hierarchically organized and exhibit rate-dependent, non-linear, viscoelastic stress–strain responses. Comparison of mechanical properties across systems and among different testing methods requires careful assessment of testing conditions and calibration schemes, which are not yet standardized
Mentions: Cells within tissues are subjected to exogenous, physiological forces, including fluid shear stress or mechanical load, while at the same time cells exert acto-myosin-generated contractile forces to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to neighboring cells via cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions [44]. Hooke’s Law and Newton’s Laws of equilibrium readily relate the linear extension of a ‘spring’ to forces, and using appropriate material models we can further relate forces to stresses (force/area). All mechanical measurements revolve around exquisitely precise displacement measurements, yet these displacement data must be converted to estimate force via a set of material deformation models [45]. By necessity, these models are oversimplified because proteins, cells, and tissues present highly anisotropic, heterogeneous, nonlinear mechanical properties that vary widely and depend on the composition, architecture, and environmental conditions, as well as the direction, nature and rate of load application [46]. But do not despair, for while ‘essentially, all models are wrong, some are useful’ [47]. Although we need a material model to estimate forces and stresses, we can directly observe substrate displacements and calculate strains (changes in length/original length) or three-dimensional deformation fields (Fig. 1). To unravel how cells convert these mechanical cues into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction), we must also consider how the structures of proteins and protein networks are altered upon mechanical load. The cellular microenvironment consists of protein networks of varying biochemical and physical properties, including matrix composition, dimensionality and stiffness, all of which have been shown to co-regulate cell function, differentiation, tissue homeostasis and organ development [48, 49].Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena.This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. e.paluch@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena. This forum explores the role of mechanotransduction in a variety of cellular activities and highlights intriguing questions that deserve further attention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus