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Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photograph of an ovitrap at a motorway service station. All photographs attributed to Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology group (MEZE); Public Health England
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Fig7: Photograph of an ovitrap at a motorway service station. All photographs attributed to Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology group (MEZE); Public Health England

Mentions: UK ferry ports are not considered to be appropriate for mosquito surveillance, given that vehicles exiting ferries or Eurotunnel are not required to stop for any significant period of time. Therefore focus has been given to motorway service stations along the inland routes from the ferry ports in southern England and Eurotunnel terminals. Invasive mosquito surveillance was therefore initiated by PHE at six service stations in the UK from August to October 2014 (Fig. 2; Tables 1 and 2). They were all chosen based on their proximity to cross-channel connections, and because they served traffic having recently arrived through the Eurotunnel and cross-channel ferry ports. A total of 56 ovitraps (Fig. 7) were set out across the six service stations from August to October, in vegetation around the car, caravan, and lorry parking areas. At three services stations, BG Sentinel adult traps were deployed using Sweetscent® lures. The ovitraps and adult traps were checked every two weeks until the second week of October. The substrate used in the ovitraps, cubes of polystyrene (~5 cm3), were visually checked for eggs, and if warranted, were placed in a labelled sample bag and returned to the laboratory for further examination under the microscope. Adult trap catch bags were replaced every two weeks and the catch examined and sorted in the laboratory. No mosquito eggs were found, and the only adult species found in the adult traps was the native and ubiquitous Culex pipiens s.l..Fig. 7


Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Photograph of an ovitrap at a motorway service station. All photographs attributed to Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology group (MEZE); Public Health England
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491199&req=5

Fig7: Photograph of an ovitrap at a motorway service station. All photographs attributed to Medical Entomology and Zoonoses Ecology group (MEZE); Public Health England
Mentions: UK ferry ports are not considered to be appropriate for mosquito surveillance, given that vehicles exiting ferries or Eurotunnel are not required to stop for any significant period of time. Therefore focus has been given to motorway service stations along the inland routes from the ferry ports in southern England and Eurotunnel terminals. Invasive mosquito surveillance was therefore initiated by PHE at six service stations in the UK from August to October 2014 (Fig. 2; Tables 1 and 2). They were all chosen based on their proximity to cross-channel connections, and because they served traffic having recently arrived through the Eurotunnel and cross-channel ferry ports. A total of 56 ovitraps (Fig. 7) were set out across the six service stations from August to October, in vegetation around the car, caravan, and lorry parking areas. At three services stations, BG Sentinel adult traps were deployed using Sweetscent® lures. The ovitraps and adult traps were checked every two weeks until the second week of October. The substrate used in the ovitraps, cubes of polystyrene (~5 cm3), were visually checked for eggs, and if warranted, were placed in a labelled sample bag and returned to the laboratory for further examination under the microscope. Adult trap catch bags were replaced every two weeks and the catch examined and sorted in the laboratory. No mosquito eggs were found, and the only adult species found in the adult traps was the native and ubiquitous Culex pipiens s.l..Fig. 7

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus