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Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photograph of used tyres stored at a retreaded tyre manufacturer
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Fig6: Photograph of used tyres stored at a retreaded tyre manufacturer

Mentions: Surveillance for invasive mosquitoes has also been conducted by PHE at several major used tyre importers annually since 2010 (Tables 1 and 2; Fig. 6). An initial search of imported tyre companies was conducted by systematically identifying tyre importers via internet and telephone book searches, existing databases and reports. HM Customs data was available for the years 2009–2012 for all companies importing used tyres from outside the EU, and letters were sent to all to arrange access for surveys. Although the return rate was low, surveys were conducted at five companies including the two largest importers of used tyres (including truck tyres for retreading), and regular surveys have been made each summer since (Fig. 6). During June to September used tyres stored at the yards of the two largest importers are sampled for mosquito larvae, with additional ovitraps and BG-Mosquitaire adult traps (Biogents, Regensburg, Germany, http://www.biogents.com/) placed in line with ECDC Guidelines [6]. To date no invasive species have been found during these surveys. Culex pipiens s.l. is most commonly found, and Culiseta annulata is frequently found in tyres with high amounts of leaf litter and vegetation. Mosquito larvae are most often found closest to the perimeter of the tyre storage yard, which may be a result of proximity to vegetation, or because the tyres have in some cases been stored there the longest.Fig. 6


Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Photograph of used tyres stored at a retreaded tyre manufacturer
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491199&req=5

Fig6: Photograph of used tyres stored at a retreaded tyre manufacturer
Mentions: Surveillance for invasive mosquitoes has also been conducted by PHE at several major used tyre importers annually since 2010 (Tables 1 and 2; Fig. 6). An initial search of imported tyre companies was conducted by systematically identifying tyre importers via internet and telephone book searches, existing databases and reports. HM Customs data was available for the years 2009–2012 for all companies importing used tyres from outside the EU, and letters were sent to all to arrange access for surveys. Although the return rate was low, surveys were conducted at five companies including the two largest importers of used tyres (including truck tyres for retreading), and regular surveys have been made each summer since (Fig. 6). During June to September used tyres stored at the yards of the two largest importers are sampled for mosquito larvae, with additional ovitraps and BG-Mosquitaire adult traps (Biogents, Regensburg, Germany, http://www.biogents.com/) placed in line with ECDC Guidelines [6]. To date no invasive species have been found during these surveys. Culex pipiens s.l. is most commonly found, and Culiseta annulata is frequently found in tyres with high amounts of leaf litter and vegetation. Mosquito larvae are most often found closest to the perimeter of the tyre storage yard, which may be a result of proximity to vegetation, or because the tyres have in some cases been stored there the longest.Fig. 6

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus