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Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photograph of larval surveys at London Heathrow airport
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Fig4: Photograph of larval surveys at London Heathrow airport

Mentions: A joint pilot initiative was set up between PHE, Salford University, the Association of Port Health Authorities (APHA), and eleven sea and airports throughout England and Northern Ireland, to examine the potential for imported mosquitoes. Published in two papers [58, 59], the aim of this project was to investigate the level of preparedness of UK seaports and airports for exotic invasive mosquitoes and assess the likelihood of sea and airports as routes of invasive mosquito importation. The objectives of the study were (1) to establish a baseline understanding of the aquatic mosquito habitats in and around major ports in England and Northern Ireland, (2) to conduct active surveillance for invasive mosquitoes at the ports, (3) to identify appropriate surveillance methodologies suited to port environments, and (4) to develop the capability and capacity of Port Health Officers (PHOs) to conduct invasive mosquito surveillance. Surveys were conducted at London Heathrow airport, London Gatwick airport, Belfast International and Belfast City airports, Felixstowe seaport, Southampton seaport, Bristol seaport, Hull seaport, Manchester seaport, and Liverpool seaport (Fig. 2, Tables 1 and 2). PHOs mapped and surveyed a wide range of different potential aquatic habitats and container habitats within their ports for mosquitoes. Ovitraps were used at the ports where possible, BG Sentinel adult traps (Biogents, Regensburg, Germany, http://www.biogents.com/) baited with Sweetscent® lures (Biogents, Germany), and the Mosquito Magnet® Executive Mosquito trap (MosquitoMagnet, Lititz, Pennsylvania, USA; http://www.mosquitomagnet.com/) (Fig. 3) were also used where appropriate and possible. The choice of sampling methods (larval surveys (Fig. 4), ovitraps, Mosquito Magnet, BG Sentinel) was driven by particular characteristics of each seaport / airport as permitted by their security policy and accessibility, and also the human resources available [59].Fig. 3


Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Photograph of larval surveys at London Heathrow airport
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491199&req=5

Fig4: Photograph of larval surveys at London Heathrow airport
Mentions: A joint pilot initiative was set up between PHE, Salford University, the Association of Port Health Authorities (APHA), and eleven sea and airports throughout England and Northern Ireland, to examine the potential for imported mosquitoes. Published in two papers [58, 59], the aim of this project was to investigate the level of preparedness of UK seaports and airports for exotic invasive mosquitoes and assess the likelihood of sea and airports as routes of invasive mosquito importation. The objectives of the study were (1) to establish a baseline understanding of the aquatic mosquito habitats in and around major ports in England and Northern Ireland, (2) to conduct active surveillance for invasive mosquitoes at the ports, (3) to identify appropriate surveillance methodologies suited to port environments, and (4) to develop the capability and capacity of Port Health Officers (PHOs) to conduct invasive mosquito surveillance. Surveys were conducted at London Heathrow airport, London Gatwick airport, Belfast International and Belfast City airports, Felixstowe seaport, Southampton seaport, Bristol seaport, Hull seaport, Manchester seaport, and Liverpool seaport (Fig. 2, Tables 1 and 2). PHOs mapped and surveyed a wide range of different potential aquatic habitats and container habitats within their ports for mosquitoes. Ovitraps were used at the ports where possible, BG Sentinel adult traps (Biogents, Regensburg, Germany, http://www.biogents.com/) baited with Sweetscent® lures (Biogents, Germany), and the Mosquito Magnet® Executive Mosquito trap (MosquitoMagnet, Lititz, Pennsylvania, USA; http://www.mosquitomagnet.com/) (Fig. 3) were also used where appropriate and possible. The choice of sampling methods (larval surveys (Fig. 4), ovitraps, Mosquito Magnet, BG Sentinel) was driven by particular characteristics of each seaport / airport as permitted by their security policy and accessibility, and also the human resources available [59].Fig. 3

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus