Limits...
Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Current known distribution of Aedes albopictus as of October 2014. ECDC VBORNET www.ecdc.europa.eu/vbornet
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491199&req=5

Fig1: Current known distribution of Aedes albopictus as of October 2014. ECDC VBORNET www.ecdc.europa.eu/vbornet

Mentions: The Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is the most established invasive mosquito species in Europe and has now been reported in 25 European countries including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the Vatican City [5]. The species is a particular biting nuisance in many countries including Italy, parts of southern France, Spain, and the Adriatic coasts of Croatia (Fig. 1) [1]. Climate models have shown that the UK’s climate is suitable for the development and sustained maintenance of populations of Ae. albopictus [7, 8]. Aedes albopictus is a proven vector of CHIKV and has been the primary vector of cases on La Reunion Island in 2005–2007 [9], in Italy in 2007 [10, 11], and in France in 2010 and 2014 [12, 13]. Aedes albopictus has also caused outbreaks of DENV on La Reunion Island in 1977–1978 and 2004 [14, 15], Hawaii in 2001–2002 [16], Mauritus in 2009 [17] with the first autochthonous cases in Europe since Greece in 1927 in Croatia in 2010 [18], and France in 2010, 2013 [19, 20], and 2014 [5]. Additional viruses have also been isolated from field specimens of the mosquito, with laboratory transmission demonstrated. These include Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) [21, 22], La Crosse virus (LACV) [23, 24], Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) [25, 26], West Nile virus (WNV) [27, 28], and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) [29].Fig. 1


Current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the UK.

Vaux AG, Medlock JM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Current known distribution of Aedes albopictus as of October 2014. ECDC VBORNET www.ecdc.europa.eu/vbornet
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491199&req=5

Fig1: Current known distribution of Aedes albopictus as of October 2014. ECDC VBORNET www.ecdc.europa.eu/vbornet
Mentions: The Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is the most established invasive mosquito species in Europe and has now been reported in 25 European countries including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the Vatican City [5]. The species is a particular biting nuisance in many countries including Italy, parts of southern France, Spain, and the Adriatic coasts of Croatia (Fig. 1) [1]. Climate models have shown that the UK’s climate is suitable for the development and sustained maintenance of populations of Ae. albopictus [7, 8]. Aedes albopictus is a proven vector of CHIKV and has been the primary vector of cases on La Reunion Island in 2005–2007 [9], in Italy in 2007 [10, 11], and in France in 2010 and 2014 [12, 13]. Aedes albopictus has also caused outbreaks of DENV on La Reunion Island in 1977–1978 and 2004 [14, 15], Hawaii in 2001–2002 [16], Mauritus in 2009 [17] with the first autochthonous cases in Europe since Greece in 1927 in Croatia in 2010 [18], and France in 2010, 2013 [19, 20], and 2014 [5]. Additional viruses have also been isolated from field specimens of the mosquito, with laboratory transmission demonstrated. These include Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) [21, 22], La Crosse virus (LACV) [23, 24], Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) [25, 26], West Nile virus (WNV) [27, 28], and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) [29].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC.It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology group, Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom. Alex.Vaux@phe.gov.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into Europe, and are now established in many European countries. The continued European importation of potential vectors and their expansion within Europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the UK. Coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.

Methods: To ensure a cost-effective risk assessment and preparedness strategy the UK employs a multi-faceted approach to surveillance for non-native Aedes mosquitoes, including passive and active surveillance strategies at a local, regional, and national level. Passive surveillance, including a national mosquito recording scheme and local authority nuisance biting reporting, are combined with targeted active surveillance at seaports, airports, used tyre importers, and motorway service stations.

Results: There is no evidence to date that any invasive Aedes species (e.g., Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes aegypti) occur in the UK despite sharing many of the same routes that have been found to have facilitated their entry into other countries.

Conclusions: This paper sets in context the UK approaches with other European countries and those recommended by the ECDC. It also highlights future UK strategies to enhance surveillance for non-native mosquitoes to help ensure that incursions can be managed, and these mosquitoes do not establish and public health is protected. Focus will be given to increasing the number of submissions of mosquitoes to passive surveillance schemes and maintaining active surveillance efforts at key routes of potential importation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus