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Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications.

Matsuhisa N, Kaltenbrunner M, Yokota T, Jinno H, Kuribara K, Sekitani T, Someya T - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes.The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant.The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan [2] Advanced Leading Graduate Course for Photon Science (ALPS), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm(-1) and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm(-1) when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Elastic conductor self-assembly by phase separation.(a–f) Addition of surfactant/water solution results in a phase-separated morphology consisting of an elastic core topped by an Ag-dense surface layer. Optical microscopy and SEM images. In SEM images, bright areas correspond to Ag-rich phases, and the dark areas to non-conductive elastomeric regions. Upper row (a–c) without surfactant. Lower row (d–f) with surfactant. Left column (a,d) optical micrographs. Scale bars, 200 μm. Middle column (b,e) top-surface SEM images. Scale bars, 10 μm. Right column (c,f) cross-sectional SEM image. Scale bars, 10 μm. (g–l) Cross-sectional ToF-SIMS images. Upper row (g–i) without surfactant. Lower row (j–l) with surfactant. Left column (g,j) optical micrographs corresponding the ToF-SIMS images. Middle column (h,k) ToF-SIMS images of Ag. Right column (i,l) ToF-SIMS images of surfactant. Scale bars, 200 μm. Addition of surfactant reduces Ag signal as the surfactant binds to the Ag surface and is responsible for increasing the affinity between Ag flakes and fluorine rubber matrix. (m–o) Top-surface SEM images of stretched elastic conductors. (m–o) are elastic conductors stretched by 0%, 100% and 200%, respectively. Scale bars, 20 μm.
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f2: Elastic conductor self-assembly by phase separation.(a–f) Addition of surfactant/water solution results in a phase-separated morphology consisting of an elastic core topped by an Ag-dense surface layer. Optical microscopy and SEM images. In SEM images, bright areas correspond to Ag-rich phases, and the dark areas to non-conductive elastomeric regions. Upper row (a–c) without surfactant. Lower row (d–f) with surfactant. Left column (a,d) optical micrographs. Scale bars, 200 μm. Middle column (b,e) top-surface SEM images. Scale bars, 10 μm. Right column (c,f) cross-sectional SEM image. Scale bars, 10 μm. (g–l) Cross-sectional ToF-SIMS images. Upper row (g–i) without surfactant. Lower row (j–l) with surfactant. Left column (g,j) optical micrographs corresponding the ToF-SIMS images. Middle column (h,k) ToF-SIMS images of Ag. Right column (i,l) ToF-SIMS images of surfactant. Scale bars, 200 μm. Addition of surfactant reduces Ag signal as the surfactant binds to the Ag surface and is responsible for increasing the affinity between Ag flakes and fluorine rubber matrix. (m–o) Top-surface SEM images of stretched elastic conductors. (m–o) are elastic conductors stretched by 0%, 100% and 200%, respectively. Scale bars, 20 μm.

Mentions: We characterize these multilayer structures by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to better understand the self-assembly process and to determine the distribution of Ag flakes and surfactant within and at the surface of the elastic conductor. Adding surfactant to the ink visually alters the surface of the printed structures, as observed by optical microscopy (Fig. 2a,d).


Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications.

Matsuhisa N, Kaltenbrunner M, Yokota T, Jinno H, Kuribara K, Sekitani T, Someya T - Nat Commun (2015)

Elastic conductor self-assembly by phase separation.(a–f) Addition of surfactant/water solution results in a phase-separated morphology consisting of an elastic core topped by an Ag-dense surface layer. Optical microscopy and SEM images. In SEM images, bright areas correspond to Ag-rich phases, and the dark areas to non-conductive elastomeric regions. Upper row (a–c) without surfactant. Lower row (d–f) with surfactant. Left column (a,d) optical micrographs. Scale bars, 200 μm. Middle column (b,e) top-surface SEM images. Scale bars, 10 μm. Right column (c,f) cross-sectional SEM image. Scale bars, 10 μm. (g–l) Cross-sectional ToF-SIMS images. Upper row (g–i) without surfactant. Lower row (j–l) with surfactant. Left column (g,j) optical micrographs corresponding the ToF-SIMS images. Middle column (h,k) ToF-SIMS images of Ag. Right column (i,l) ToF-SIMS images of surfactant. Scale bars, 200 μm. Addition of surfactant reduces Ag signal as the surfactant binds to the Ag surface and is responsible for increasing the affinity between Ag flakes and fluorine rubber matrix. (m–o) Top-surface SEM images of stretched elastic conductors. (m–o) are elastic conductors stretched by 0%, 100% and 200%, respectively. Scale bars, 20 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491189&req=5

f2: Elastic conductor self-assembly by phase separation.(a–f) Addition of surfactant/water solution results in a phase-separated morphology consisting of an elastic core topped by an Ag-dense surface layer. Optical microscopy and SEM images. In SEM images, bright areas correspond to Ag-rich phases, and the dark areas to non-conductive elastomeric regions. Upper row (a–c) without surfactant. Lower row (d–f) with surfactant. Left column (a,d) optical micrographs. Scale bars, 200 μm. Middle column (b,e) top-surface SEM images. Scale bars, 10 μm. Right column (c,f) cross-sectional SEM image. Scale bars, 10 μm. (g–l) Cross-sectional ToF-SIMS images. Upper row (g–i) without surfactant. Lower row (j–l) with surfactant. Left column (g,j) optical micrographs corresponding the ToF-SIMS images. Middle column (h,k) ToF-SIMS images of Ag. Right column (i,l) ToF-SIMS images of surfactant. Scale bars, 200 μm. Addition of surfactant reduces Ag signal as the surfactant binds to the Ag surface and is responsible for increasing the affinity between Ag flakes and fluorine rubber matrix. (m–o) Top-surface SEM images of stretched elastic conductors. (m–o) are elastic conductors stretched by 0%, 100% and 200%, respectively. Scale bars, 20 μm.
Mentions: We characterize these multilayer structures by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to better understand the self-assembly process and to determine the distribution of Ag flakes and surfactant within and at the surface of the elastic conductor. Adding surfactant to the ink visually alters the surface of the printed structures, as observed by optical microscopy (Fig. 2a,d).

Bottom Line: The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes.The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant.The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan [2] Advanced Leading Graduate Course for Photon Science (ALPS), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm(-1) and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm(-1) when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus