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Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

Wu GH, Hsu SH - J Med Biol Eng (2015)

Bottom Line: Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography.There are advantages and limitations for each method.Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan, ROC.

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

No MeSH data available.


Scheme of selective laser sintering (SLS). Laser beam scans surface of polymer powder to sinter into scaffold
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Fig5: Scheme of selective laser sintering (SLS). Laser beam scans surface of polymer powder to sinter into scaffold

Mentions: Selective laser sintering (SLS) is another technique commonly used in scaffold fabrication (as shown in Fig. 5). It uses a high-power laser for polymer powder sintering to form a scaffold. During sintering, a high-power laser, for example a carbon dioxide laser, is used to draw on the powders. The polymer powder can be fused into large parts, and thus the scaffold is made layer by layer. This technique is preferred for rendering complex porous scaffolds. Unlike FDM and SLA, SLS does not require supports. The unsintered powder provides support for the model during the build process. For bone tissue engineering, Williams et al. [29] manufactured porous PCL scaffolds via SLS. The mechanical properties of the resulting scaffolds are within the lower range of those of human trabecular bone. The porous structure provides spaces for tissue ingrowth as well as sufficient mechanical strength. PCL/hydroxyapatite, a biocomposite, was used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds by Wiria et al. [30]. A porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold was fabricated for bone tissue engineering by Shuai et al. via SLS [31]. The porous structure of the scaffold was controllable and totally interconnected. The porosity of the scaffolds was measured to be 67.9 ± 2.7 %. A porous scaffold proposed by Yeong et al. [32] was fabricated for cardiac tissue engineering. In this study, SLS was used to fabricate PCL scaffolds. Both PLA and PCL scaffolds fabricated by SLS have demonstrated feasibility for specific tissue engineering applications. Chen et al. rendered PCL scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue engineering research [33]. Chondrocytes were seeded in collagen and further loaded into the scaffold. Studies on pore geometry and distribution were performed. Results showed that a customized and designed scaffold could be made with the combination of these technologies for cartilage tissue engineering. Regarding the starting materials for the SLS process, Ca-P/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) nanocomposite material was used by Duan and Wang to fabricate microspheres [34]. Normally, bioactive molecules are not able to retain their activity after the SLS process. These microspheres could encapsulate proteins and are suitable for SLS processes to build up scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Although the encapsulation efficiency was only 24.51 ± 0.60 %, this study demonstrated the potential of biomolecule incorporation within the materials used for SLS scaffold fabrication. A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of various 3D printing techniques is shown in Table 1.Fig. 5


Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

Wu GH, Hsu SH - J Med Biol Eng (2015)

Scheme of selective laser sintering (SLS). Laser beam scans surface of polymer powder to sinter into scaffold
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4491116&req=5

Fig5: Scheme of selective laser sintering (SLS). Laser beam scans surface of polymer powder to sinter into scaffold
Mentions: Selective laser sintering (SLS) is another technique commonly used in scaffold fabrication (as shown in Fig. 5). It uses a high-power laser for polymer powder sintering to form a scaffold. During sintering, a high-power laser, for example a carbon dioxide laser, is used to draw on the powders. The polymer powder can be fused into large parts, and thus the scaffold is made layer by layer. This technique is preferred for rendering complex porous scaffolds. Unlike FDM and SLA, SLS does not require supports. The unsintered powder provides support for the model during the build process. For bone tissue engineering, Williams et al. [29] manufactured porous PCL scaffolds via SLS. The mechanical properties of the resulting scaffolds are within the lower range of those of human trabecular bone. The porous structure provides spaces for tissue ingrowth as well as sufficient mechanical strength. PCL/hydroxyapatite, a biocomposite, was used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds by Wiria et al. [30]. A porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold was fabricated for bone tissue engineering by Shuai et al. via SLS [31]. The porous structure of the scaffold was controllable and totally interconnected. The porosity of the scaffolds was measured to be 67.9 ± 2.7 %. A porous scaffold proposed by Yeong et al. [32] was fabricated for cardiac tissue engineering. In this study, SLS was used to fabricate PCL scaffolds. Both PLA and PCL scaffolds fabricated by SLS have demonstrated feasibility for specific tissue engineering applications. Chen et al. rendered PCL scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue engineering research [33]. Chondrocytes were seeded in collagen and further loaded into the scaffold. Studies on pore geometry and distribution were performed. Results showed that a customized and designed scaffold could be made with the combination of these technologies for cartilage tissue engineering. Regarding the starting materials for the SLS process, Ca-P/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) nanocomposite material was used by Duan and Wang to fabricate microspheres [34]. Normally, bioactive molecules are not able to retain their activity after the SLS process. These microspheres could encapsulate proteins and are suitable for SLS processes to build up scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Although the encapsulation efficiency was only 24.51 ± 0.60 %, this study demonstrated the potential of biomolecule incorporation within the materials used for SLS scaffold fabrication. A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of various 3D printing techniques is shown in Table 1.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography.There are advantages and limitations for each method.Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan, ROC.

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

No MeSH data available.