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Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis.

Vandevijvere S, Chow CC, Hall KD, Umali E, Swinburn BA - Bull. World Health Organ. (2015)

Bottom Line: In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population Health, University of Auckland, 261 Morrin Road, Auckland, New Zealand .

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight.

Methods: We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971-2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model.

Findings: In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Change in food energy supply and change in average body weight for 69 countries, 1971–2010
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Figure 1: Change in food energy supply and change in average body weight for 69 countries, 1971–2010

Mentions: For 56 countries (81%) both food energy supply and body weight increased between the survey pairs. For 45 of these countries (80%) the increase in food energy supply was more than sufficient to explain the increase in average body weight. This is shown in Fig. 1 with 56/69 countries being in the top right quadrant and 45/56 being to the right of the model-predicted change in energy intake needed to produce the increase in mean body weight for that country. This same pattern was observed for countries of all income levels (Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). For 11 countries (Benin, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Lebanon, Mauritania and New Zealand) in the top right quadrant, the increase in food energy supply was insufficient to account for the observed increase in weight (Fig. 1).


Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis.

Vandevijvere S, Chow CC, Hall KD, Umali E, Swinburn BA - Bull. World Health Organ. (2015)

Change in food energy supply and change in average body weight for 69 countries, 1971–2010
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490816&req=5

Figure 1: Change in food energy supply and change in average body weight for 69 countries, 1971–2010
Mentions: For 56 countries (81%) both food energy supply and body weight increased between the survey pairs. For 45 of these countries (80%) the increase in food energy supply was more than sufficient to explain the increase in average body weight. This is shown in Fig. 1 with 56/69 countries being in the top right quadrant and 45/56 being to the right of the model-predicted change in energy intake needed to produce the increase in mean body weight for that country. This same pattern was observed for countries of all income levels (Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). For 11 countries (Benin, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Lebanon, Mauritania and New Zealand) in the top right quadrant, the increase in food energy supply was insufficient to account for the observed increase in weight (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight.Abstract available from the publisher.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population Health, University of Auckland, 261 Morrin Road, Auckland, New Zealand .

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight.

Methods: We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971-2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model.

Findings: In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus