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Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models.

Mariano LJ, Poore JC, Krum DM, Schwartz JL, Coskren WD, Jones EM - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach.Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload.Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Cambridge, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM) for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game's functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit.

No MeSH data available.


Association between average time spent in peaked states and self-reported task difficulty. Illustrates that BP-HMM modeling output can be reduced to metrics with intuitive and predictive utility. First, metrics describing the structure of states have bearing on users' understanding of how game interface functions are integrated. Second, participants who rely on specific functions, without exploring (or trying to discover) other ways of interacting with the game interface report difficulty with the game task (above).
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Figure 10: Association between average time spent in peaked states and self-reported task difficulty. Illustrates that BP-HMM modeling output can be reduced to metrics with intuitive and predictive utility. First, metrics describing the structure of states have bearing on users' understanding of how game interface functions are integrated. Second, participants who rely on specific functions, without exploring (or trying to discover) other ways of interacting with the game interface report difficulty with the game task (above).

Mentions: Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between the time participants spent in peaked and diffuse states and game performance across sessions. Participants who spent more time in peaked states than diffuse states were less likely to correctly swap tiles in their first session (r = −0.68, p < 0.01). This is to be expected given that the states that exhibited more swapping behavior were agnostically classified as diffuse states. However, almost all of the participants who spent more time in peaked states were almost categorically incorrect in post-session 2 self-reports of the governing rule for scoring points, as indicated by independent raters [t(12) = −7.13, p < 0.001; see Figure 9]. They also self-reported expending more mental effort in their first session (r = 0.49, p < 0.05), but not their second (r = 0.25, p = 0.05), and were more likely to report more difficulty with the task across sessions (r = 0.62, p < 0.01, see Figure 10).


Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models.

Mariano LJ, Poore JC, Krum DM, Schwartz JL, Coskren WD, Jones EM - Front Psychol (2015)

Association between average time spent in peaked states and self-reported task difficulty. Illustrates that BP-HMM modeling output can be reduced to metrics with intuitive and predictive utility. First, metrics describing the structure of states have bearing on users' understanding of how game interface functions are integrated. Second, participants who rely on specific functions, without exploring (or trying to discover) other ways of interacting with the game interface report difficulty with the game task (above).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490801&req=5

Figure 10: Association between average time spent in peaked states and self-reported task difficulty. Illustrates that BP-HMM modeling output can be reduced to metrics with intuitive and predictive utility. First, metrics describing the structure of states have bearing on users' understanding of how game interface functions are integrated. Second, participants who rely on specific functions, without exploring (or trying to discover) other ways of interacting with the game interface report difficulty with the game task (above).
Mentions: Correlation analyses revealed a strong relationship between the time participants spent in peaked and diffuse states and game performance across sessions. Participants who spent more time in peaked states than diffuse states were less likely to correctly swap tiles in their first session (r = −0.68, p < 0.01). This is to be expected given that the states that exhibited more swapping behavior were agnostically classified as diffuse states. However, almost all of the participants who spent more time in peaked states were almost categorically incorrect in post-session 2 self-reports of the governing rule for scoring points, as indicated by independent raters [t(12) = −7.13, p < 0.001; see Figure 9]. They also self-reported expending more mental effort in their first session (r = 0.49, p < 0.05), but not their second (r = 0.25, p = 0.05), and were more likely to report more difficulty with the task across sessions (r = 0.62, p < 0.01, see Figure 10).

Bottom Line: We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach.Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload.Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Cambridge, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM) for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game's functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit.

No MeSH data available.