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A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

Sun J, Wang J, Pan X, Yuan H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems.In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system.The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Marine Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China. golden_sun@dlmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

No MeSH data available.


(a) The mortality rates (MRs) of Platymonas subcordiformis by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (b) The MRs of Chlorella vulgaris by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (c) The MRs of Prorocentrum micans by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (d) The MRs of Karenia mikimotoi by one trial injection of electrolytic products.
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ijms-16-13158-f001: (a) The mortality rates (MRs) of Platymonas subcordiformis by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (b) The MRs of Chlorella vulgaris by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (c) The MRs of Prorocentrum micans by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (d) The MRs of Karenia mikimotoi by one trial injection of electrolytic products.

Mentions: The mortality rates (MRs) of algae species by one trial injection of electrolytic products are shown in Figure 1a–d. The relations among the algae mortality and the electrolytic products concentration and the reaction time were illustrated in the figures. It can be seen that with the increase of the concentration of the available chlorine, the MRs of four algae species increase. When the concentration of available chlorine reaches 5 mg/L, all algae species died completely after 72 h. It is observed that the trends of the relations among the MR and the electrolytic products concentration and the reaction time for all algal cells are almost the same. However, the tolerance ability of each algae species against available chlorine is quite different. For Platymonas subcordiformis, when the concentration of available chlorine was 5 mg/L, the MR reaches 100% after being treated for 24 h, Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg/L for 100% after 24 h, Karenia mikimotoi, 3 mg/L for 100% after 72 h, and Prorocentrum micans, 5 mg/L for 100% after 72 h respectively. In addition, the MRs of algae species is related also to exposure time of available chlorine. Under the certain concentrations of the available chlorine, the MR of algae increases with the exposure time. It is found that the MRs of algal cells rise significantly within 6 h. While under extended exposure time, the MRs of algal cells gradually decreased. This phenomenon, in turn, is related to available chlorine decay or deterioration [25]. Typically, the decay characteristics of 1 mg/L available chlorine concentration with the exposure time for the four algae species were shown in Figure 2.


A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

Sun J, Wang J, Pan X, Yuan H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

(a) The mortality rates (MRs) of Platymonas subcordiformis by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (b) The MRs of Chlorella vulgaris by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (c) The MRs of Prorocentrum micans by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (d) The MRs of Karenia mikimotoi by one trial injection of electrolytic products.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490490&req=5

ijms-16-13158-f001: (a) The mortality rates (MRs) of Platymonas subcordiformis by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (b) The MRs of Chlorella vulgaris by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (c) The MRs of Prorocentrum micans by one trial injection of electrolytic products; (d) The MRs of Karenia mikimotoi by one trial injection of electrolytic products.
Mentions: The mortality rates (MRs) of algae species by one trial injection of electrolytic products are shown in Figure 1a–d. The relations among the algae mortality and the electrolytic products concentration and the reaction time were illustrated in the figures. It can be seen that with the increase of the concentration of the available chlorine, the MRs of four algae species increase. When the concentration of available chlorine reaches 5 mg/L, all algae species died completely after 72 h. It is observed that the trends of the relations among the MR and the electrolytic products concentration and the reaction time for all algal cells are almost the same. However, the tolerance ability of each algae species against available chlorine is quite different. For Platymonas subcordiformis, when the concentration of available chlorine was 5 mg/L, the MR reaches 100% after being treated for 24 h, Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg/L for 100% after 24 h, Karenia mikimotoi, 3 mg/L for 100% after 72 h, and Prorocentrum micans, 5 mg/L for 100% after 72 h respectively. In addition, the MRs of algae species is related also to exposure time of available chlorine. Under the certain concentrations of the available chlorine, the MR of algae increases with the exposure time. It is found that the MRs of algal cells rise significantly within 6 h. While under extended exposure time, the MRs of algal cells gradually decreased. This phenomenon, in turn, is related to available chlorine decay or deterioration [25]. Typically, the decay characteristics of 1 mg/L available chlorine concentration with the exposure time for the four algae species were shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems.In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system.The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Marine Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China. golden_sun@dlmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

No MeSH data available.