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The Stable Level of Glutamine synthetase 2 Plays an Important Role in Rice Growth and in Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Balance.

Bao A, Zhao Z, Ding G, Shi L, Xu F, Cai H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems.Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage.These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microelement Research Center, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. baoaili19870212@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The concentration of soluble proteins in the roots, stems and uppermost leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage (A) and the tillering stage (B) under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD from three biological replicated plant materials. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
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ijms-16-12713-f003: The concentration of soluble proteins in the roots, stems and uppermost leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage (A) and the tillering stage (B) under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD from three biological replicated plant materials. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.

Mentions: To evaluate the differences in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic status between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants, we determined the concentrations of total soluble proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the roots, stems and leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants and wild-type plants under N, G and N + G growth conditions at the seedling and tillering stages. The results showed that there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while there was a lower concentration of soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the tillering stage compared to the wild-type plants (Figure 3). For example, at the seedling stage, compared to the wild-type plants, there was a 30.5% increase in the root soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants under N + G conditions; there were 39.0% and 42.4% increases in soluble proteins in the stems under N and G conditions, respectively; and there was a 20.2% increase in the soluble proteins in the leaves under the N condition (Figure 3A). At the tillering stage, compared to the wild-type plants, there was a 39.8% decrease in the root soluble proteins of the GS2-cosuppressed plants under the G condition; there were 53.6% and 56.9% decreases in the soluble proteins in the stems under the N and G conditions, respectively; and there were 26.4%, 43.0% and 24.1% decreases in the soluble proteins in the leaves under the N, G and N + G conditions, respectively (Figure 3B).


The Stable Level of Glutamine synthetase 2 Plays an Important Role in Rice Growth and in Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Balance.

Bao A, Zhao Z, Ding G, Shi L, Xu F, Cai H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

The concentration of soluble proteins in the roots, stems and uppermost leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage (A) and the tillering stage (B) under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD from three biological replicated plant materials. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490469&req=5

ijms-16-12713-f003: The concentration of soluble proteins in the roots, stems and uppermost leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage (A) and the tillering stage (B) under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD from three biological replicated plant materials. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
Mentions: To evaluate the differences in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic status between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants, we determined the concentrations of total soluble proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the roots, stems and leaves of GS2-cosuppressed plants and wild-type plants under N, G and N + G growth conditions at the seedling and tillering stages. The results showed that there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while there was a lower concentration of soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the tillering stage compared to the wild-type plants (Figure 3). For example, at the seedling stage, compared to the wild-type plants, there was a 30.5% increase in the root soluble proteins in the GS2-cosuppressed plants under N + G conditions; there were 39.0% and 42.4% increases in soluble proteins in the stems under N and G conditions, respectively; and there was a 20.2% increase in the soluble proteins in the leaves under the N condition (Figure 3A). At the tillering stage, compared to the wild-type plants, there was a 39.8% decrease in the root soluble proteins of the GS2-cosuppressed plants under the G condition; there were 53.6% and 56.9% decreases in the soluble proteins in the stems under the N and G conditions, respectively; and there were 26.4%, 43.0% and 24.1% decreases in the soluble proteins in the leaves under the N, G and N + G conditions, respectively (Figure 3B).

Bottom Line: The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems.Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage.These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microelement Research Center, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. baoaili19870212@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus