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The Stable Level of Glutamine synthetase 2 Plays an Important Role in Rice Growth and in Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Balance.

Bao A, Zhao Z, Ding G, Shi L, Xu F, Cai H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems.Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage.These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microelement Research Center, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. baoaili19870212@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The root length and plant height (A), root dry weight and shoot dry weight (B) in the GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage and the tillering stage under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD of ten randomly-selected plants. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
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ijms-16-12713-f001: The root length and plant height (A), root dry weight and shoot dry weight (B) in the GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage and the tillering stage under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD of ten randomly-selected plants. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.

Mentions: At the seedling stage, there was no obvious difference in the root length and plant height between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and wild-type plants (Figure 1A). At the tillering stage, there were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in the root length and plant height in GS2-cosuppressed plants compared to the wild-type plants (20.8% and 15.4% decreases in root length in the GS2-cosuppressed plants grown under N and G conditions, respectively; 25.9% decreases in plant height in GS2-cosuppressed plants grown under N + G conditions; Figure 1A). In addition, the root length of both GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants decreased significantly after Gln was supplied to the nutrient solution, especially at the seedling stage. There were 58.3%–65% decreases in root length growth under G and N + G conditions when compared to the N condition (Figure 1A). For the root and shoot dry weight analysis, there were significant (p < 0.05) reductions in GS2-cosuppressed plants at both the seedling and tillering stages when compared to the wild-type plants under these three different growth conditions, except the root and shoot dry weight under the G condition at the seedling stage (Figure 1B). Compared to the wild-type plants, there were 20.8%–23.2% reductions in the root dry weight, and 8.6%–12.2% reductions in the shoot dry weight of GS2-cosuppressed plants were observed at the seedling stage; meanwhile, 36.2%–59.8% reductions in the root dry weight and 49.1%–80.9% reductions in the shoot dry weight of GS2-cosuppressed plants were observed at the tillering stage (Figure 1B). These results showed the different growth phenotypes between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants at the tillering stage, especially with regard to the root and shoot dry weight.


The Stable Level of Glutamine synthetase 2 Plays an Important Role in Rice Growth and in Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Balance.

Bao A, Zhao Z, Ding G, Shi L, Xu F, Cai H - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

The root length and plant height (A), root dry weight and shoot dry weight (B) in the GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage and the tillering stage under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD of ten randomly-selected plants. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490469&req=5

ijms-16-12713-f001: The root length and plant height (A), root dry weight and shoot dry weight (B) in the GS2-cosuppressed plants (Co-sup-GS2) and wild-type plants (WT) at the seedling stage and the tillering stage under N (NH4NO3), G (Gln) and N + G (NH4NO3 + Gln) conditions. Values are the mean ± SD of ten randomly-selected plants. *, ** Significant differences at the level of p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
Mentions: At the seedling stage, there was no obvious difference in the root length and plant height between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and wild-type plants (Figure 1A). At the tillering stage, there were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in the root length and plant height in GS2-cosuppressed plants compared to the wild-type plants (20.8% and 15.4% decreases in root length in the GS2-cosuppressed plants grown under N and G conditions, respectively; 25.9% decreases in plant height in GS2-cosuppressed plants grown under N + G conditions; Figure 1A). In addition, the root length of both GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants decreased significantly after Gln was supplied to the nutrient solution, especially at the seedling stage. There were 58.3%–65% decreases in root length growth under G and N + G conditions when compared to the N condition (Figure 1A). For the root and shoot dry weight analysis, there were significant (p < 0.05) reductions in GS2-cosuppressed plants at both the seedling and tillering stages when compared to the wild-type plants under these three different growth conditions, except the root and shoot dry weight under the G condition at the seedling stage (Figure 1B). Compared to the wild-type plants, there were 20.8%–23.2% reductions in the root dry weight, and 8.6%–12.2% reductions in the shoot dry weight of GS2-cosuppressed plants were observed at the seedling stage; meanwhile, 36.2%–59.8% reductions in the root dry weight and 49.1%–80.9% reductions in the shoot dry weight of GS2-cosuppressed plants were observed at the tillering stage (Figure 1B). These results showed the different growth phenotypes between the GS2-cosuppressed plants and the wild-type plants at the tillering stage, especially with regard to the root and shoot dry weight.

Bottom Line: The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems.Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage.These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microelement Research Center, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. baoaili19870212@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus