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Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

Mansor MA, Ahmad MR - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique.This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques.Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310-UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. asraf@biomedical.utm.my.

ABSTRACT
Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Schematic diagram of conventional patch clamp technique; (b) Single cell electrical measurement using dual nanoprobes incorporated with ESEM. Reprinted with permission from [37]; (c) Schematic of measurement of the effective dielectric constant of a single bacterium using electrostatic force microscopy. Reprinted with permission from [39].
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ijms-16-12686-f001: (a) Schematic diagram of conventional patch clamp technique; (b) Single cell electrical measurement using dual nanoprobes incorporated with ESEM. Reprinted with permission from [37]; (c) Schematic of measurement of the effective dielectric constant of a single bacterium using electrostatic force microscopy. Reprinted with permission from [39].

Mentions: The patch clamp technique is unique in enabling high-resolution recording of the ionic currents flowing through a cell’s plasma membrane. Since the introduction of the patch-clamp technique by Neher and Sakmann in 1976, patch-clamp was adopted by researchers in cellular and molecular biology research areas for studying and providing valuable information of biological cell electrical properties [26,27]. The patch-clamp technique is also capable to analyze ionic currents in the cell membrane under conditions of complete control over transmembrane voltage and ionic gradients. Figure 1a illustrates the basic principle of patch clamp technique. A glass micropipette is used as a probe to suck a cell membrane into a micropipette to form a high electrical resistance or also called as giga-seals (e.g., normally between 10 and 100 GΩ [28]. Thus, the ion current that flows through the pipette (containing an electrode) is measured through an amplifier. Patch clamp can be operated in two modes, which are voltage and current mode. Voltage mode is used to measure voltage specific activity of an ionic channel, while current mode is used to measure the potential change in membrane when a current pulse has been injected into the cell [29]. Furthermore, the patch clamp technique has five basic measurement configurations such as cell-attached patch (CAP), whole-cell (WC), inside-out patch (IOP), outside-out patch (OOP) and permeabilized-patch WC-configuration (ppWC) [30,31]. More detail on the working principle of the patch clamp technique has been described [32,33].


Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

Mansor MA, Ahmad MR - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

(a) Schematic diagram of conventional patch clamp technique; (b) Single cell electrical measurement using dual nanoprobes incorporated with ESEM. Reprinted with permission from [37]; (c) Schematic of measurement of the effective dielectric constant of a single bacterium using electrostatic force microscopy. Reprinted with permission from [39].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490468&req=5

ijms-16-12686-f001: (a) Schematic diagram of conventional patch clamp technique; (b) Single cell electrical measurement using dual nanoprobes incorporated with ESEM. Reprinted with permission from [37]; (c) Schematic of measurement of the effective dielectric constant of a single bacterium using electrostatic force microscopy. Reprinted with permission from [39].
Mentions: The patch clamp technique is unique in enabling high-resolution recording of the ionic currents flowing through a cell’s plasma membrane. Since the introduction of the patch-clamp technique by Neher and Sakmann in 1976, patch-clamp was adopted by researchers in cellular and molecular biology research areas for studying and providing valuable information of biological cell electrical properties [26,27]. The patch-clamp technique is also capable to analyze ionic currents in the cell membrane under conditions of complete control over transmembrane voltage and ionic gradients. Figure 1a illustrates the basic principle of patch clamp technique. A glass micropipette is used as a probe to suck a cell membrane into a micropipette to form a high electrical resistance or also called as giga-seals (e.g., normally between 10 and 100 GΩ [28]. Thus, the ion current that flows through the pipette (containing an electrode) is measured through an amplifier. Patch clamp can be operated in two modes, which are voltage and current mode. Voltage mode is used to measure voltage specific activity of an ionic channel, while current mode is used to measure the potential change in membrane when a current pulse has been injected into the cell [29]. Furthermore, the patch clamp technique has five basic measurement configurations such as cell-attached patch (CAP), whole-cell (WC), inside-out patch (IOP), outside-out patch (OOP) and permeabilized-patch WC-configuration (ppWC) [30,31]. More detail on the working principle of the patch clamp technique has been described [32,33].

Bottom Line: This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique.This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques.Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310-UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. asraf@biomedical.utm.my.

ABSTRACT
Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus