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Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes: features, structures and implications for phylogeny.

Wang Y, Chen J, Jiang LY, Qiao GX - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions.We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels.This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. wangyuan0330@163.com.

ABSTRACT
The study of Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) began with the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata, in 2001. At present, 90 complete Hemipteran mitogenomes have been sequenced and annotated. This review examines the history of Hemipteran mitogenomes research and summarizes the main features of them including genome organization, nucleotide composition, protein-coding genes, tRNAs and rRNAs, and non-coding regions. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions. Gene rearrangements are an additional data type for a few families, and most mitogenomes are arranged in the same order to the proposed ancestral insect. We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels. This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ML and BI Phylogenetic tree inferred from 90 hemipteran mitogenome sequences based on 13 PCGs. The node support values are the Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) and the bootstrap (BS) values.
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ijms-16-12382-f007: ML and BI Phylogenetic tree inferred from 90 hemipteran mitogenome sequences based on 13 PCGs. The node support values are the Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) and the bootstrap (BS) values.

Mentions: As mentioned in the introduction, the phylogenic relationship of the Hemiptera has been controversial for many years and two questions remain unanswered. Here, we reviewed the research history of hemipteran phylogenetic relationships based on mitogenomes and combine our phylogenetic analyses to discuss the most reliable results. In 2009, a study clarified the relationships of the three phylogenetically controversial suborders, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Heteroptera [53]. Heteroptera constituted a monophyletic group, and a sister relationship was proposed for Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha [53]. However, only one species (Cicadomorpha: Philaenus spumarius) was chosen representing Auchenorrhyncha, and no taxa of Fulgoromorpha were discussed. Therefore, in the same year, Song and Liang [38] increased the samplings of taxa and proposed the inferred genealogical proximities of hemipteran lineages of (Heteroptera + (Cicadomorpha + (Fulgoromorpha + Sternorrhyncha))). In their research, Auchenorrhyncha was clearly separated into two parts, and Fulgoromorpha and Cicadomorpha were not a monophyletic group [38]. In fact, in their reports (in 2010 and 2012), the paraphyly of Auchenorrhyncha was also supported [40,41], and their phylogenetic reconstruction supported a sister relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha [40]. The suborder Coleorrhyncha (Hemiptera) has only one extant family, Peloridiidae, comprising 36 species in 17 genera [79]. Species of this group live in the wet mosses of South America (Chile, Argentina), New Zealand, New Caledonia and eastern Australia (from North Queensland to Tasmania) [80]. Complete or nearly complete mitogenomes of Peloridiidae were not obtained until 2013 [12]. Cui’s research was the first phylogenomic study of hemipterans with complete suborder samplings. Their results supported the paraphyly of Auchenorrhyncha and proposed the close relationship between Cicadomorpha and Heteroptera [12]. Meanwhile, our result displayed the similar result (Figure 7): Sternorrhyncha located as the basal suborder and Cicadomorpha and Heteroptera clustered as sister-group. Summarizing all these viewpoints, we can make three conclusions. First, the phylogenetic relationships among suborder-level hemipteran linages remain unclear by using mitogenome inference. Most viewpoints supported that Auchenorrhyncha is not a monophyletic group; Second, whether a monophyletic group or a sister-group to Cicadomorpha, the suborder Heteroptera is the most evolved group of Hemiptera; Third, the positions of other suborders remain confused and require further investigation.


Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes: features, structures and implications for phylogeny.

Wang Y, Chen J, Jiang LY, Qiao GX - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

ML and BI Phylogenetic tree inferred from 90 hemipteran mitogenome sequences based on 13 PCGs. The node support values are the Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) and the bootstrap (BS) values.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490450&req=5

ijms-16-12382-f007: ML and BI Phylogenetic tree inferred from 90 hemipteran mitogenome sequences based on 13 PCGs. The node support values are the Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) and the bootstrap (BS) values.
Mentions: As mentioned in the introduction, the phylogenic relationship of the Hemiptera has been controversial for many years and two questions remain unanswered. Here, we reviewed the research history of hemipteran phylogenetic relationships based on mitogenomes and combine our phylogenetic analyses to discuss the most reliable results. In 2009, a study clarified the relationships of the three phylogenetically controversial suborders, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Heteroptera [53]. Heteroptera constituted a monophyletic group, and a sister relationship was proposed for Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha [53]. However, only one species (Cicadomorpha: Philaenus spumarius) was chosen representing Auchenorrhyncha, and no taxa of Fulgoromorpha were discussed. Therefore, in the same year, Song and Liang [38] increased the samplings of taxa and proposed the inferred genealogical proximities of hemipteran lineages of (Heteroptera + (Cicadomorpha + (Fulgoromorpha + Sternorrhyncha))). In their research, Auchenorrhyncha was clearly separated into two parts, and Fulgoromorpha and Cicadomorpha were not a monophyletic group [38]. In fact, in their reports (in 2010 and 2012), the paraphyly of Auchenorrhyncha was also supported [40,41], and their phylogenetic reconstruction supported a sister relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha [40]. The suborder Coleorrhyncha (Hemiptera) has only one extant family, Peloridiidae, comprising 36 species in 17 genera [79]. Species of this group live in the wet mosses of South America (Chile, Argentina), New Zealand, New Caledonia and eastern Australia (from North Queensland to Tasmania) [80]. Complete or nearly complete mitogenomes of Peloridiidae were not obtained until 2013 [12]. Cui’s research was the first phylogenomic study of hemipterans with complete suborder samplings. Their results supported the paraphyly of Auchenorrhyncha and proposed the close relationship between Cicadomorpha and Heteroptera [12]. Meanwhile, our result displayed the similar result (Figure 7): Sternorrhyncha located as the basal suborder and Cicadomorpha and Heteroptera clustered as sister-group. Summarizing all these viewpoints, we can make three conclusions. First, the phylogenetic relationships among suborder-level hemipteran linages remain unclear by using mitogenome inference. Most viewpoints supported that Auchenorrhyncha is not a monophyletic group; Second, whether a monophyletic group or a sister-group to Cicadomorpha, the suborder Heteroptera is the most evolved group of Hemiptera; Third, the positions of other suborders remain confused and require further investigation.

Bottom Line: Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions.We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels.This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. wangyuan0330@163.com.

ABSTRACT
The study of Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) began with the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata, in 2001. At present, 90 complete Hemipteran mitogenomes have been sequenced and annotated. This review examines the history of Hemipteran mitogenomes research and summarizes the main features of them including genome organization, nucleotide composition, protein-coding genes, tRNAs and rRNAs, and non-coding regions. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions. Gene rearrangements are an additional data type for a few families, and most mitogenomes are arranged in the same order to the proposed ancestral insect. We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels. This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus