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Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes: features, structures and implications for phylogeny.

Wang Y, Chen J, Jiang LY, Qiao GX - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions.We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels.This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. wangyuan0330@163.com.

ABSTRACT
The study of Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) began with the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata, in 2001. At present, 90 complete Hemipteran mitogenomes have been sequenced and annotated. This review examines the history of Hemipteran mitogenomes research and summarizes the main features of them including genome organization, nucleotide composition, protein-coding genes, tRNAs and rRNAs, and non-coding regions. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions. Gene rearrangements are an additional data type for a few families, and most mitogenomes are arranged in the same order to the proposed ancestral insect. We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels. This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Evolutionary rates of protein-coding genes in hemipteran mitogenomes. The blue bar indicates the gene’s Ka/Ks, and the red bar indicates the Jukes-Cantor adjusting data.
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ijms-16-12382-f004: Evolutionary rates of protein-coding genes in hemipteran mitogenomes. The blue bar indicates the gene’s Ka/Ks, and the red bar indicates the Jukes-Cantor adjusting data.

Mentions: In view of the evolutionary forces acting on the mitochondrial PCGs of hemipteran species, the average rate of non-synonymous substitutions (Ka), the average rate of synonymous substitutions (Ks), the average ratio of Ka/Ks, and the Jukes-Cantor adjusted Ka/Ks (JKa/JKs) were calculated for each PCG, respectively [68]. The results showed that atp8 had the highest evolutionary rate, followed by nad2, while cox1 appeared to be the lowest (Figure 4). Notably, the ratio of Ka/Ks for each PCG was below 1, indicating that these genes are evolving under purifying selection. The uniformly low values of the Ka/Ks and JKa/JKs ratios for cox1–3 and cob indicate strong evolutionary constraints in cytochrome c oxidase [69] and also suggest a strong purifying selection in the species of Hemiptera. Therefore, a DNA barcoding approach based on cox1 sequence diversity has been utilized for identification of closely related species [70]. Similarly, cob and cox2 with relatively slow rates may also be candidate barcoding markers [24,62]. By contrast, due to the highest divergence, atp8 and nad2 can be used as an effective molecular marker to analyze intraspecific relationships and reveal relationships between populations within the same hemipteran species. This result is highly consistent with previous findings in most metazoans [71].


Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes: features, structures and implications for phylogeny.

Wang Y, Chen J, Jiang LY, Qiao GX - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Evolutionary rates of protein-coding genes in hemipteran mitogenomes. The blue bar indicates the gene’s Ka/Ks, and the red bar indicates the Jukes-Cantor adjusting data.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490450&req=5

ijms-16-12382-f004: Evolutionary rates of protein-coding genes in hemipteran mitogenomes. The blue bar indicates the gene’s Ka/Ks, and the red bar indicates the Jukes-Cantor adjusting data.
Mentions: In view of the evolutionary forces acting on the mitochondrial PCGs of hemipteran species, the average rate of non-synonymous substitutions (Ka), the average rate of synonymous substitutions (Ks), the average ratio of Ka/Ks, and the Jukes-Cantor adjusted Ka/Ks (JKa/JKs) were calculated for each PCG, respectively [68]. The results showed that atp8 had the highest evolutionary rate, followed by nad2, while cox1 appeared to be the lowest (Figure 4). Notably, the ratio of Ka/Ks for each PCG was below 1, indicating that these genes are evolving under purifying selection. The uniformly low values of the Ka/Ks and JKa/JKs ratios for cox1–3 and cob indicate strong evolutionary constraints in cytochrome c oxidase [69] and also suggest a strong purifying selection in the species of Hemiptera. Therefore, a DNA barcoding approach based on cox1 sequence diversity has been utilized for identification of closely related species [70]. Similarly, cob and cox2 with relatively slow rates may also be candidate barcoding markers [24,62]. By contrast, due to the highest divergence, atp8 and nad2 can be used as an effective molecular marker to analyze intraspecific relationships and reveal relationships between populations within the same hemipteran species. This result is highly consistent with previous findings in most metazoans [71].

Bottom Line: Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions.We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels.This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. wangyuan0330@163.com.

ABSTRACT
The study of Hemipteran mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) began with the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata, in 2001. At present, 90 complete Hemipteran mitogenomes have been sequenced and annotated. This review examines the history of Hemipteran mitogenomes research and summarizes the main features of them including genome organization, nucleotide composition, protein-coding genes, tRNAs and rRNAs, and non-coding regions. Special attention is given to the comparative analysis of repeat regions. Gene rearrangements are an additional data type for a few families, and most mitogenomes are arranged in the same order to the proposed ancestral insect. We also discuss and provide insights on the phylogenetic analyses of a variety of taxonomic levels. This review is expected to further expand our understanding of research in this field and serve as a valuable reference resource.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus