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Ecotoxicogenomic approaches for understanding molecular mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity using aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia model organism.

Kim HJ, Koedrith P, Seo YR - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields.Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment.These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-820, Korea. hd414@naver.com.

ABSTRACT
Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A scheme showing overview of biomarkers and biological interactions in Daphnia in response to stressors (as indicated 3-D red square). These candidate genes might be considered as potential biomarkers (as indicated in pink square), and their products are involved in important biological processes (as indicated in 3-D orange square) via interference with certain biomolecules (as indicated in 2-D pink square).
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ijms-16-12261-f004: A scheme showing overview of biomarkers and biological interactions in Daphnia in response to stressors (as indicated 3-D red square). These candidate genes might be considered as potential biomarkers (as indicated in pink square), and their products are involved in important biological processes (as indicated in 3-D orange square) via interference with certain biomolecules (as indicated in 2-D pink square).

Mentions: The toxicogenomic studies using Daphnia have potential advantages not only to identifying interlinked crosstalks and biological processes in response to environmental toxicants, but also to suggest promising biomarkers that are indicative of certain types of environmental stressor’s effect or exposure. Indeed, this recognizes the need for phenotypic anchoring to link changes at the molecular level to outcomes at higher levels of organization. The majority of mechanistically oriented transcriptomic studies in ecotoxicology have included a variety of apical endpoints. In various studies about toxicity using Daphnia as an aquatic test model to metals, endocrine disruptors, drugs and so on, data enables us to understanding the symptoms induced by those toxicants. Although the detailed pathways and mechanisms of the toxic effects have not been clearly elucidated, Daphnia-customized microarray data, in particular, reveals a number of biomolecules including genes involved in ion transport and chelating (ferritin, putative metallothionein), metamorphosis (vitellogenin and chitinase), invertebrate immune system (eicosanoid), glycolytic and proteolytic process (amylase, cellulose, esterase, and serine protease), cellular anti-oxidative defense (glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and peroxiredoxin), and stress response (heat shock proteins) that have been predominantly recognized as suggestive biomarkers in response to environmental stressor’s exposure or effect (Figure 4) [37,38,39,102,103].


Ecotoxicogenomic approaches for understanding molecular mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity using aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia model organism.

Kim HJ, Koedrith P, Seo YR - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

A scheme showing overview of biomarkers and biological interactions in Daphnia in response to stressors (as indicated 3-D red square). These candidate genes might be considered as potential biomarkers (as indicated in pink square), and their products are involved in important biological processes (as indicated in 3-D orange square) via interference with certain biomolecules (as indicated in 2-D pink square).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490443&req=5

ijms-16-12261-f004: A scheme showing overview of biomarkers and biological interactions in Daphnia in response to stressors (as indicated 3-D red square). These candidate genes might be considered as potential biomarkers (as indicated in pink square), and their products are involved in important biological processes (as indicated in 3-D orange square) via interference with certain biomolecules (as indicated in 2-D pink square).
Mentions: The toxicogenomic studies using Daphnia have potential advantages not only to identifying interlinked crosstalks and biological processes in response to environmental toxicants, but also to suggest promising biomarkers that are indicative of certain types of environmental stressor’s effect or exposure. Indeed, this recognizes the need for phenotypic anchoring to link changes at the molecular level to outcomes at higher levels of organization. The majority of mechanistically oriented transcriptomic studies in ecotoxicology have included a variety of apical endpoints. In various studies about toxicity using Daphnia as an aquatic test model to metals, endocrine disruptors, drugs and so on, data enables us to understanding the symptoms induced by those toxicants. Although the detailed pathways and mechanisms of the toxic effects have not been clearly elucidated, Daphnia-customized microarray data, in particular, reveals a number of biomolecules including genes involved in ion transport and chelating (ferritin, putative metallothionein), metamorphosis (vitellogenin and chitinase), invertebrate immune system (eicosanoid), glycolytic and proteolytic process (amylase, cellulose, esterase, and serine protease), cellular anti-oxidative defense (glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and peroxiredoxin), and stress response (heat shock proteins) that have been predominantly recognized as suggestive biomarkers in response to environmental stressor’s exposure or effect (Figure 4) [37,38,39,102,103].

Bottom Line: Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields.Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment.These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-820, Korea. hd414@naver.com.

ABSTRACT
Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term "ecotoxicogenomics" has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s) and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses) necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus