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Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces.

Franklin D, Chen Y, Vazquez-Guardado A, Modak S, Boroumand J, Xu D, Wu ST, Chanda D - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions.A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal.In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4111 Libra Drive, Physical Sciences Building 430, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA [2] NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826, USA.

ABSTRACT
Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarization-independent reflective surface where the colour of the surface is changed as a function of applied voltage. A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal. In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays.

No MeSH data available.


Dynamic colour tuning of arbitrary images.(a–d) Microscope images of a singular Afghan Girl image as a function of applied electric field. Nanostructure periods are chosen so colours match the original photograph at colour tuning saturation, 10 V μm−1. Scale bars (a–d), 100 μm. Defects due to fabrication errors (missing pixels) have been replaced by nearest neighbours. (e) Microscope image at 10 V μm−1 with a × 10 objective showing pixilation of the image. (f–h) SEM images of the sample before fabrication into a liquid crystal cell. The series shows the constituent nanostructure of individual pixels. Scale bars, (e) 20 μm, (f) 10 μm, (g) 5 μm, (h) 150 nm. Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos. Image rights granted by Magnum Photos New York.
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f5: Dynamic colour tuning of arbitrary images.(a–d) Microscope images of a singular Afghan Girl image as a function of applied electric field. Nanostructure periods are chosen so colours match the original photograph at colour tuning saturation, 10 V μm−1. Scale bars (a–d), 100 μm. Defects due to fabrication errors (missing pixels) have been replaced by nearest neighbours. (e) Microscope image at 10 V μm−1 with a × 10 objective showing pixilation of the image. (f–h) SEM images of the sample before fabrication into a liquid crystal cell. The series shows the constituent nanostructure of individual pixels. Scale bars, (e) 20 μm, (f) 10 μm, (g) 5 μm, (h) 150 nm. Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos. Image rights granted by Magnum Photos New York.

Mentions: To emphasize the display potential of these plasmonic surfaces, the resultant colour palette is exploited to form colour-tunable images. Figure 5a–d shows 0.75 × 1 mm reflective optical images of the Afghan Girl (Magnum Photos), while the singular sample is tuned through 0–10 V μm−1 of applied electric field. The colour mapping process is outlined in Supplementary Fig. 6. From the Afghan Girl image, it is evident that the colour of nanostructured surfaces with different periodicities saturate at different voltages. For example, the background saturates to its final colour (green) at 2.5 V μm−1, where the shawl saturates (to red/pink) at 10 V μm−1. This can be attributed to the surface anchoring force dependence on topography, which varies with the periodicity of the metasurface. Figure 5e shows a magnified image of the Afghan Girl using a × 10 objective. The 10 × 10 μm pixels can be seen in the following SEM subfigures (Fig. 4f–h) as two-dimensional (2D) gratings of varying periods. In this example, the pixelated plasmonic surface is singularly addressed and therefore limited to display one image. Further addressing of each pixel based on a standard addressing scheme will enable the display of video.


Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces.

Franklin D, Chen Y, Vazquez-Guardado A, Modak S, Boroumand J, Xu D, Wu ST, Chanda D - Nat Commun (2015)

Dynamic colour tuning of arbitrary images.(a–d) Microscope images of a singular Afghan Girl image as a function of applied electric field. Nanostructure periods are chosen so colours match the original photograph at colour tuning saturation, 10 V μm−1. Scale bars (a–d), 100 μm. Defects due to fabrication errors (missing pixels) have been replaced by nearest neighbours. (e) Microscope image at 10 V μm−1 with a × 10 objective showing pixilation of the image. (f–h) SEM images of the sample before fabrication into a liquid crystal cell. The series shows the constituent nanostructure of individual pixels. Scale bars, (e) 20 μm, (f) 10 μm, (g) 5 μm, (h) 150 nm. Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos. Image rights granted by Magnum Photos New York.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490413&req=5

f5: Dynamic colour tuning of arbitrary images.(a–d) Microscope images of a singular Afghan Girl image as a function of applied electric field. Nanostructure periods are chosen so colours match the original photograph at colour tuning saturation, 10 V μm−1. Scale bars (a–d), 100 μm. Defects due to fabrication errors (missing pixels) have been replaced by nearest neighbours. (e) Microscope image at 10 V μm−1 with a × 10 objective showing pixilation of the image. (f–h) SEM images of the sample before fabrication into a liquid crystal cell. The series shows the constituent nanostructure of individual pixels. Scale bars, (e) 20 μm, (f) 10 μm, (g) 5 μm, (h) 150 nm. Copyright Steve McCurry/Magnum Photos. Image rights granted by Magnum Photos New York.
Mentions: To emphasize the display potential of these plasmonic surfaces, the resultant colour palette is exploited to form colour-tunable images. Figure 5a–d shows 0.75 × 1 mm reflective optical images of the Afghan Girl (Magnum Photos), while the singular sample is tuned through 0–10 V μm−1 of applied electric field. The colour mapping process is outlined in Supplementary Fig. 6. From the Afghan Girl image, it is evident that the colour of nanostructured surfaces with different periodicities saturate at different voltages. For example, the background saturates to its final colour (green) at 2.5 V μm−1, where the shawl saturates (to red/pink) at 10 V μm−1. This can be attributed to the surface anchoring force dependence on topography, which varies with the periodicity of the metasurface. Figure 5e shows a magnified image of the Afghan Girl using a × 10 objective. The 10 × 10 μm pixels can be seen in the following SEM subfigures (Fig. 4f–h) as two-dimensional (2D) gratings of varying periods. In this example, the pixelated plasmonic surface is singularly addressed and therefore limited to display one image. Further addressing of each pixel based on a standard addressing scheme will enable the display of video.

Bottom Line: Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions.A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal.In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4111 Libra Drive, Physical Sciences Building 430, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA [2] NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826, USA.

ABSTRACT
Structural colour arising from nanostructured metallic surfaces offers many benefits compared to conventional pigmentation based display technologies, such as increased resolution and scalability of their optical response with structure dimensions. However, once these structures are fabricated their optical characteristics remain static, limiting their potential application. Here, by using a specially designed nanostructured plasmonic surface in conjunction with high birefringence liquid crystals, we demonstrate a tunable polarization-independent reflective surface where the colour of the surface is changed as a function of applied voltage. A large range of colour tunability is achieved over previous reports by utilizing an engineered surface which allows full liquid crystal reorientation while maximizing the overlap between plasmonic fields and liquid crystal. In combination with imprinted structures of varying periods, a full range of colours spanning the entire visible spectrum is achieved, paving the way towards dynamic pixels for reflective displays.

No MeSH data available.