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General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis.

Niu C, Meng J, Wang X, Han C, Yan M, Zhao K, Xu X, Ren W, Zhao Y, Xu L, Zhang Q, Zhao D, Mai L - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process.This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides.We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

ABSTRACT
Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Characterization and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.(a) Schematic of the lithiation and delithiation processes of mesoporous nanotubes. (b,c), SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes with scale bar at 200 nm. (d) and the inset of (c), TEM images of ultrathin carbon nanotubes after the Li3V2(PO4)3 was removed using hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (e,f) Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) line scans of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes (e) and pea-like nanotubes (f) with scale bar at 200 nm, respectively. (g,h) SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 pea-like nanotubes with scale bar at 500 nm. (i) and the inset of (h) TEM images of carbon nanotubes after removing Li3V2(PO4)3 with hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (j) Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of the half cells collected at a sweep rate of 0.1 mV s−1 in the potential ranging from 3 to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. (k,l) Rate performance and the corresponding Ragone plots of these three cathodes measured at the rates of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 C, respectively. (m) Long cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes measured at 10 C for a large number of 9,500 cycles in a lithium half cell. (n) Cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3/Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion full batteries measured at 2 and 3 C for 1,000 cycles (1 C equals to 133 mA g−1).
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f4: Characterization and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.(a) Schematic of the lithiation and delithiation processes of mesoporous nanotubes. (b,c), SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes with scale bar at 200 nm. (d) and the inset of (c), TEM images of ultrathin carbon nanotubes after the Li3V2(PO4)3 was removed using hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (e,f) Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) line scans of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes (e) and pea-like nanotubes (f) with scale bar at 200 nm, respectively. (g,h) SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 pea-like nanotubes with scale bar at 500 nm. (i) and the inset of (h) TEM images of carbon nanotubes after removing Li3V2(PO4)3 with hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (j) Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of the half cells collected at a sweep rate of 0.1 mV s−1 in the potential ranging from 3 to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. (k,l) Rate performance and the corresponding Ragone plots of these three cathodes measured at the rates of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 C, respectively. (m) Long cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes measured at 10 C for a large number of 9,500 cycles in a lithium half cell. (n) Cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3/Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion full batteries measured at 2 and 3 C for 1,000 cycles (1 C equals to 133 mA g−1).

Mentions: In energy-storage fields, most electrodes reported previously for batteries and supercapacitors suffer problems associated with a low conductivity, a small electrolyte/electrode surface area and self-aggregation during the charge/discharge process, leading to unsatisfactory performance, which greatly limits their applications3536373839404142434445. One-dimensional nanomaterials have widely been investigated and applied in energy storage fields due to its unique low-dimensional properties. Remarkably, our complex nanotubes, especially mesoporous nanotubes, have the characteristics of large surface area, excellent stability and continuous carbon nanotubes with high conductivity and so on, which is expected to effectively improve the electrochemical performance of electrodes (Fig. 4). Therefore, to confirm it, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes were selected and measured as typical examples of electroactive materials in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively.


General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis.

Niu C, Meng J, Wang X, Han C, Yan M, Zhao K, Xu X, Ren W, Zhao Y, Xu L, Zhang Q, Zhao D, Mai L - Nat Commun (2015)

Characterization and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.(a) Schematic of the lithiation and delithiation processes of mesoporous nanotubes. (b,c), SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes with scale bar at 200 nm. (d) and the inset of (c), TEM images of ultrathin carbon nanotubes after the Li3V2(PO4)3 was removed using hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (e,f) Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) line scans of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes (e) and pea-like nanotubes (f) with scale bar at 200 nm, respectively. (g,h) SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 pea-like nanotubes with scale bar at 500 nm. (i) and the inset of (h) TEM images of carbon nanotubes after removing Li3V2(PO4)3 with hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (j) Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of the half cells collected at a sweep rate of 0.1 mV s−1 in the potential ranging from 3 to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. (k,l) Rate performance and the corresponding Ragone plots of these three cathodes measured at the rates of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 C, respectively. (m) Long cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes measured at 10 C for a large number of 9,500 cycles in a lithium half cell. (n) Cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3/Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion full batteries measured at 2 and 3 C for 1,000 cycles (1 C equals to 133 mA g−1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490406&req=5

f4: Characterization and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries.(a) Schematic of the lithiation and delithiation processes of mesoporous nanotubes. (b,c), SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes with scale bar at 200 nm. (d) and the inset of (c), TEM images of ultrathin carbon nanotubes after the Li3V2(PO4)3 was removed using hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (e,f) Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) line scans of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes (e) and pea-like nanotubes (f) with scale bar at 200 nm, respectively. (g,h) SEM and TEM images of Li3V2(PO4)3 pea-like nanotubes with scale bar at 500 nm. (i) and the inset of (h) TEM images of carbon nanotubes after removing Li3V2(PO4)3 with hydrogen fluoride with scale bar at 500 nm. (j) Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of the half cells collected at a sweep rate of 0.1 mV s−1 in the potential ranging from 3 to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+. (k,l) Rate performance and the corresponding Ragone plots of these three cathodes measured at the rates of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 C, respectively. (m) Long cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3 mesoporous nanotubes measured at 10 C for a large number of 9,500 cycles in a lithium half cell. (n) Cycling performance of Li3V2(PO4)3/Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion full batteries measured at 2 and 3 C for 1,000 cycles (1 C equals to 133 mA g−1).
Mentions: In energy-storage fields, most electrodes reported previously for batteries and supercapacitors suffer problems associated with a low conductivity, a small electrolyte/electrode surface area and self-aggregation during the charge/discharge process, leading to unsatisfactory performance, which greatly limits their applications3536373839404142434445. One-dimensional nanomaterials have widely been investigated and applied in energy storage fields due to its unique low-dimensional properties. Remarkably, our complex nanotubes, especially mesoporous nanotubes, have the characteristics of large surface area, excellent stability and continuous carbon nanotubes with high conductivity and so on, which is expected to effectively improve the electrochemical performance of electrodes (Fig. 4). Therefore, to confirm it, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes were selected and measured as typical examples of electroactive materials in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively.

Bottom Line: The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process.This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides.We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

ABSTRACT
Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus