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General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis.

Niu C, Meng J, Wang X, Han C, Yan M, Zhao K, Xu X, Ren W, Zhao Y, Xu L, Zhang Q, Zhao D, Mai L - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process.This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides.We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

ABSTRACT
Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expansion of the gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method.(a–o) SEM and TEM images of multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2), binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) and single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2) mesoporous nanotubes, respectively, scale bars, 100 nm. (p–t) SEM and TEM images of pea-like nanotubes (Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2) from different species with scale bars at 200 nm. The scale bars for the inset TEM images (e, j, o, t) are 100 nm.
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f3: Expansion of the gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method.(a–o) SEM and TEM images of multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2), binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) and single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2) mesoporous nanotubes, respectively, scale bars, 100 nm. (p–t) SEM and TEM images of pea-like nanotubes (Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2) from different species with scale bars at 200 nm. The scale bars for the inset TEM images (e, j, o, t) are 100 nm.

Mentions: To confirm the mechanism of our gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method, various inorganic materials were electrospun into mesoporous nanotubes and pea-like nanotubes according to the aforementioned procedures (Fig. 3). First, multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2) were electrospun into uniform mesoporous nanotubes with a diameter of ∼200 nm. Then, the binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) were electrospun into mesoporous nanotubes with a diameter of ∼150 nm. For single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2), mesoporous nanotubes with a smaller diameter of ∼50 nm were fabricated. For the pea-like nanotubes, Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 were selected from the different species, the outer layer was carbon and the inner particles were different inorganic salts. Additional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and corresponding X-ray diffraction patterns of each sample are presented as well (Supplementary Figs 2 and 3). The detailed processes are clearly illustrated in the Methods section. Each precursor solution was electrospun at a constant flow rate of ∼0.1 ml h−1 using one ordinary syringe needle (10 ml), and the corresponding production of inorganic materials was as high as ∼0.6 mmol h−1 and ∼900 cm2 of aluminium foil for each run (Supplementary Fig. 1f), which was a large yield. And these products can also be collected in a parallel array around the rotating wheel, to improve the packing density.34


General synthesis of complex nanotubes by gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis.

Niu C, Meng J, Wang X, Han C, Yan M, Zhao K, Xu X, Ren W, Zhao Y, Xu L, Zhang Q, Zhao D, Mai L - Nat Commun (2015)

Expansion of the gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method.(a–o) SEM and TEM images of multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2), binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) and single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2) mesoporous nanotubes, respectively, scale bars, 100 nm. (p–t) SEM and TEM images of pea-like nanotubes (Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2) from different species with scale bars at 200 nm. The scale bars for the inset TEM images (e, j, o, t) are 100 nm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490406&req=5

f3: Expansion of the gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method.(a–o) SEM and TEM images of multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2), binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) and single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2) mesoporous nanotubes, respectively, scale bars, 100 nm. (p–t) SEM and TEM images of pea-like nanotubes (Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2) from different species with scale bars at 200 nm. The scale bars for the inset TEM images (e, j, o, t) are 100 nm.
Mentions: To confirm the mechanism of our gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method, various inorganic materials were electrospun into mesoporous nanotubes and pea-like nanotubes according to the aforementioned procedures (Fig. 3). First, multi-element oxides (Li3V2(PO4)3, Na3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2) were electrospun into uniform mesoporous nanotubes with a diameter of ∼200 nm. Then, the binary-metal oxides (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, NiCo2O4 and LiV3O8) were electrospun into mesoporous nanotubes with a diameter of ∼150 nm. For single-metal oxides (CuO, Co3O4, SnO2 and MnO2), mesoporous nanotubes with a smaller diameter of ∼50 nm were fabricated. For the pea-like nanotubes, Co, LiCoO2, Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 were selected from the different species, the outer layer was carbon and the inner particles were different inorganic salts. Additional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and corresponding X-ray diffraction patterns of each sample are presented as well (Supplementary Figs 2 and 3). The detailed processes are clearly illustrated in the Methods section. Each precursor solution was electrospun at a constant flow rate of ∼0.1 ml h−1 using one ordinary syringe needle (10 ml), and the corresponding production of inorganic materials was as high as ∼0.6 mmol h−1 and ∼900 cm2 of aluminium foil for each run (Supplementary Fig. 1f), which was a large yield. And these products can also be collected in a parallel array around the rotating wheel, to improve the packing density.34

Bottom Line: The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process.This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides.We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

ABSTRACT
Nanowires and nanotubes have been the focus of considerable efforts in energy storage and solar energy conversion because of their unique properties. However, owing to the limitations of synthetic methods, most inorganic nanotubes, especially for multi-element oxides and binary-metal oxides, have been rarely fabricated. Here we design a gradient electrospinning and controlled pyrolysis method to synthesize various controllable 1D nanostructures, including mesoporous nanotubes, pea-like nanotubes and continuous nanowires. The key point of this method is the gradient distribution of low-/middle-/high-molecular-weight poly(vinyl alcohol) during the electrospinning process. This simple technique is extended to various inorganic multi-element oxides, binary-metal oxides and single-metal oxides. Among them, Li3V2(PO4)3, Na0.7Fe0.7Mn0.3O2 and Co3O4 mesoporous nanotubes exhibit ultrastable electrochemical performance when used in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, respectively. We believe that a wide range of new materials available from our composition gradient electrospinning and pyrolysis methodology may lead to further developments in research on 1D systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus