Limits...
Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

Kim H, Lee J, Ahn H, Kim O, Park MJ - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases.Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles.Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li(+)-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g(-1) at 5 C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li(+)-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g(-1) at 5 C.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Synthetic route of sulfur-rich polymers in tens of grams.Schematic drawings describing the synthetic procedures of sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology; (1) preparation of TTCA co-crystals, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA template, following the equation given in the figure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490390&req=5

f1: Synthetic route of sulfur-rich polymers in tens of grams.Schematic drawings describing the synthetic procedures of sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology; (1) preparation of TTCA co-crystals, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA template, following the equation given in the figure.

Mentions: We employed porous TTCA crystals as a soft template for the synthesis of sulfur-containing polymers. Figure 1 provides a schematic description of the synthetic procedures used for sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology in tens of grams, which can be summarized in the following steps: (1) preparation of a set of TTCA co-crystals by varying the crystallization solvents, formed by N−H···S hydrogen bonds between TTCA molecules and N−H···O=C hydrogen bonds between TTCA and the solvents, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via simple heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA frameworks, following the equation given in the figure. Detailed procedures are provided in the Methods.


Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

Kim H, Lee J, Ahn H, Kim O, Park MJ - Nat Commun (2015)

Synthetic route of sulfur-rich polymers in tens of grams.Schematic drawings describing the synthetic procedures of sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology; (1) preparation of TTCA co-crystals, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA template, following the equation given in the figure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4490390&req=5

f1: Synthetic route of sulfur-rich polymers in tens of grams.Schematic drawings describing the synthetic procedures of sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology; (1) preparation of TTCA co-crystals, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA template, following the equation given in the figure.
Mentions: We employed porous TTCA crystals as a soft template for the synthesis of sulfur-containing polymers. Figure 1 provides a schematic description of the synthetic procedures used for sulfur-rich polymers with controllable morphology in tens of grams, which can be summarized in the following steps: (1) preparation of a set of TTCA co-crystals by varying the crystallization solvents, formed by N−H···S hydrogen bonds between TTCA molecules and N−H···O=C hydrogen bonds between TTCA and the solvents, (2) creation of porous TTCA frameworks by removing the solvents via simple heat treatment, (3) impregnation of sulfur into porous TTCA frameworks and (4) ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur at the thiol surfaces of porous TTCA frameworks, following the equation given in the figure. Detailed procedures are provided in the Methods.

Bottom Line: Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases.Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles.Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li(+)-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g(-1) at 5 C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li(+)-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g(-1) at 5 C.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus